Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Trueperella pyogenes mastitis

Synonym(s): Summer mastitis

Contributor(s): Peter Down , Anja Sipka

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Introduction

  • Cause: Trueperella pyogenes (often mixed infection with other pathogens including Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Peptococcus indolicus and Fusobacterium necrophorum.
  • Signs: mastitis affecting dry cows and heifers, seen mostly during warmer months.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs.
  • Treatment: frequent stripping, systemic antibiotics and NSAIDs.
  • Prognosis: full recovery of infected quarter is rare. Treatment is aimed at saving the animal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Trauma and irritation of the udder, which may cause leaking and disruption of the keratin seal normally present in the teats of non-lactating cattle.

Specific

  • Presence of the sheep head fly, Hydrotaea irritans, which is a commonly observed nuisance parasite around livestock in the summer months. Flies

Pathophysiology

  • The virulence of T. pyogenes is attributed to several mechanisms including pyolisin (a potent cytolisin related to tissue damage), neuraminidases (nanH and nanP genes), fimbriae (fimA), and collagen-binding protein (cbpA) which are associated with mucosal adherence and colonization.
  • Development of pyogranulomatous reactions in tissues and organs is another pathogenic mechanism of T. pyogenes.
  • Due to opportunistic behavior of the micro-organism, several routes of transmission are possible.

Epidemiology

  • Major means of transmission is thought to be Hydrotoea irritans (sheep head fly).
  • These flies live in sheltered areas such as woods and copses and only fly out when wind-speeds are low.
  • Larvae overwinter in light, sandy soils, and emerge as adults in July, August and September which is when most cases of summer mastitis are seen.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Zastempowska E & Lassa H (2012) Genotypic characterization and evaluation of an antibiotic resistance of Trueperella pyogenes (Arcanobacterium pyogenes) isolated from milk of dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Vet mic 161, 153-158 PubMed.
  • Malinowski E, Lassa H, Klossowska A, Markiewicz H, Kaczmarowski M & Smulski (2006) Relationship between mastitis agents and somatic cell count in foremilk samples. Bull vet inst pulawy 50, 349–352 PubMed.
  • Jost B H & Billington S J (2005) Arcanobacterium pyogenes: molecular pathogenesis of an animal opportunist. Anton van leeuw 88, 87–102 PubMed.
  • Grohn Y T, Wilson D J, Gonzalez R N, Hertl J A, Schulte H, Bennett G & Schukken Y H (2004) Effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on milk yield in dairy cows. J dairy sci 87, 3358–3374 PubMed.
  • Waage S, Skei H R, Rise J, Rogdo T, Sviland S & Ødegaard S A (2000) Outcome of clinical mastitis in dairy heifers assessed by re-examination of cases one month after treatment. J dairy sci 83, 70–76.

Other Sources of Information

  • Blowey R & Edmondson P (2010) Mastitis control in dairy herds. 2nd edn. Oxfordshire, United Kingdom. CAB International.
  • Radostits O M, Gay C C, Hinchcliff K W & Constable P D (2007) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs, and goats. Philadelphia, P A. Saunders Elsevier. pp 722-724.


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