Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Teat warts

Synonym(s): bovine papilloma virus

Contributor(s): Louise Cox-O’Shea, Owen Atkinson, Vetstream Ltd, Peter Down , Roger Blowey

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Introduction

  • Cause: bovine papilloma virus. (BPV 1, 2 &6).
  • Signs: papillomas and fibropapillomas of the udder and teat.
  • Diagnosis: presumptive and PCR.
  • Treatment: treatment is often not required.
    • Warts usually spontaneously resolve.
    • Minor surgery or vaccination, to speed up resolution, may be required.
  • Prognosis: generally good for mild cases, but severe cases may be impossible to milk and have to be culled.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • There are 6 types of Bovine papilloma virus Papilloma virus that can affect cattle, 3 strains are associated with teat warts.
  • BPV6 causes smooth, raised, small, flat warts (like grains of rice!):
    • Rarely cause problems.
  • BPV5 & 1  cause larger, frond like, filamentous proliferations:
    • These longer ‘dry’ warts can often be easily pulled off the teat, causing minimal pain
    • Very occasionally prone to bleeding and can result in secondary infections.
    • Surgical excision may be required, particularly if they interfere with the teat canal or become so large as to be causing irritation.
    • In these cases it may be better to dry off the quarter. The wart will probably have naturally resolved by the next lactation and the quarter will come back into milk again unaffected.
    • Direct or indirect contact.
    • Abrasions may allow the virus to gain entry.

Timecourse

  • Infection typically occurs 1-6 months before warts appear.
  • Wart regression can take 12 months or more.

Epidemiology

  • Direct or indirect transmission.
  • Need cutaneous damage to gain entry.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Merck Veterinary Manual.
  • Andrews A, Blowey R, Boyd H, Eddy R (eds) Bovine Medicine: Diseases and Husbandry of cattle.
  • Blowey R & Weaver (eds) A Color Atlas of Diseases and Disorders of Cattle. Elsevier. pp 211 - 212.


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