Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Salmonellosis

Synonym(s): S. Dublin, S. Typhimurium, S Mbandaka and S Newport

Contributor(s): , Peter Down

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Introduction

  • Signs: enteric, septicemic and reproductive diseases are all possible manifestations of salmonella infection in cattle.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs consistent with disease, bacterial culture, serology.
  • Treatment: fluid therapy, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and antimicrobials as necessitated based on culture and sensitivity results.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Salmonella Salmonella spp is a genus of Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacteria that belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae.
  • The genus Salmonella comprises more than 2600 serovars:
    • S Dublin is the host adapted serovar in cattle.
    • S Typhimurium, S Mbandaka and S Newport are the most common serovars isolated from cattle in the UK.

Predisposing factors

General

  • UK disease outbreaks occur most commonly in winter and spring, often associated with periods of housing, lambing and calving.

Specific

  • Fecal contamination of food and water sources.
  • Carrier status is an important factor in the maintenance of endemic herd infection.
  • Physiological stress.
  • High stocking density.
  • Increased herd size.
  • Concurrent Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica infection.
  • Concurrent immunosuppressive disease, eg BVDV BVDV.

Pathophysiology

  • Most salmonellae are acquired via fecal oral contamination from other livestock, wildlife or birds. 
    • More rarely via the conjunctival or respiratory system.
  • Upon ingestion, salmonella are capable of attaching to mucosal cells and causing enterocyte destruction.
  • From here they invade through M-cells, enterocytes and tonsillar lymphoid tissue. Stimulating an inflammatory response, or are engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils. Upon entry to these mononuclear cells, they can then be disseminated throughout the body. 
  • The virulence mechanisms of Salmonella spp include the ability to invade the intestinal mucosa, to multiply in lymphoid tissues, and to evade host defence systems, leading to systemic disease.

Timecourse

  • Calves may be infected and exhibit clinical signs associated with a diverse array of salmonella serotypes within hours of birth. 

Epidemiology

  • Calves between 14 days and three months and animals in the first 14 days of lactation are most susceptible to Salmonella Dublin infection. 

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Holschbach C L & Peek S F (2018) Salmonella in dairy cattle. Vet Clin Food Anim (34) pp 133–154.
  • Hateley G & Carson A (2017) Salmonella investigations in ruminants. Veterinary Record (181) pp 366-367.
  • Henderson K & Mason C (2017) Diagnosis and control of salmonella dublin in dairy herds. In Practice (39) pp 158-168.
  • Pecoraro H L, Thompson B & Duhamel G E (2017) Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Vol 29 (6) pp 860–864.
  • Mohler V L, Izzon M & House J K (2009) Salmonella in calves. Vet Clin Food Anim (25) pp 37–54.


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