Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Jembrana disease

Contributor(s): Mike Reynolds , Veronica Fowler

Introduction

  • Cause: Jembrana disease is caused by Jembrana disease virus (JDV), which is a member of the Lentivirinae genera of the retrovirinae family. JDV is related to, but distinct from bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). JDV is a single-stranded RNA virus and has the smallest genome of any of the lentiviruses.
  • Signs: see below.
  • Diagnosis:
    • JDV is diagnosed in the field based on clinical signs (eg disease only observed in Bali cattle) and post mortem findings consistent with disease.
    • However, Jembrana disease is difficult to differentially diagnose based on clinical signs alone as the disease is often complicated by secondary bacterial infections.
    • Definitive diagnosis is therefore confirmed using laboratory methods such as antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
  • Treatment: ring vaccination and supportive therapy.
  • Prognosis:
    • High morbidity and moderate mortality.
    • If cattle survive the acute phase of infection and do not contract a secondary bacterial infection prognosis is often good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Jembrana disease is caused by Jembrana disease virus (JDV), which is a member of the Lentivirinae genera of the retrovirinae family. JDV is related to, but distinct from bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Bovine immunodeficiency virus.
  • JDV naturally infects Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) and buffalo European buffalo.
  • Experimental infection has been achieved in Bos taurus and Bos indicus but resulted in only mild disease.
  • It is possible that cattle may be infected mechanically via re-using syringes during vaccination campaigns.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Breed.
  • Geographical location.
  • Direct contact between infected and naïve animals.
  • Presence of arthropod vectors.
  • Secondary infections.
  • Poor nutrition.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection with JDV causes a profound lymphopenia, neutropenia, throbocytopenia and anemia and animals will often succumb to secondary bacterial infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effects of the virus.
  • Experimental infection predicts facility rates of between 15-17%.

Timecourse

  • 5-12 days incubation period with a clinical duration of 7 days is most commonly seen.

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological data suggests spread via biting insects (hematophagous arthropods) and this is further supported by an increased disease incidence during the wet season in Indonesia, when biting insects proliferate.
  • Transmission of disease has been observed between experimentally infected and in contact animals.
  • Other modes of transmission may include via body fluids (milk, semen, urine, tears and saliva) enabling transmission via the intranasal, conjunctival and oral routes Pathogen transmission: overview.

Diagnosis

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Desport M & Lewis J (2010) Jembrana Disease Virus: Host Responses, Viral Dynamics and Disease Control. Curr HIV Res 8, 53-65 PubMed.
  • Chadwick B J, Desport M, Brownlie J, Wilcox G E, Dharma D M N (1998) Detection of Jembrana disease virus in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other tissues by in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. J Gen Virol 79, 101-106 PubMed.
  • Kertayadnya G, Wilcox G E, Soeharsono S et al (1993) Characteristics of a retrovirus associated with Jembrana disease in Bali cattle. J Gen Virol 74 (Pt 9), 765-778 PubMed.
  • Dharma D M N, Budiantono A, Campbell R S F, Ladds P W (1991) Studies on Experimental Jembrana Disease in Bali Cattle. III. Pathology. J Comp Path 105, 397-413.

Other sources of information

  • Brown C & Torres A (2008) USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases. Seventh Edition.
    Committee of Foreign and Emerging Diseases of the US Animal Health Association. Boca
    Publications Group, Inc. Canada, pp 317-321.
  • Büchen-Osmond C Index to ICTVdB virus descriptions. In: Büchen-Osmond C, Ed. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database.version 4 ed: ICTVdB Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.


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