Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Pseudo-lumpy skin disease

Contributor(s): Catherine Fraser , Ben Dustan

Introduction

  • Cause: bovine herpes virus 2 (Allerton virus).
  • Signs: multiple nodules in the skin.
  • Diagnosis: virus isolation and histopathology.
  • Treatment: local treatment, control of secondary infection and fly strike.
  • Prognosis: good for self-cure over 2-3 weeks.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A highly infectious cause of bovine skin disease.
  • Infection is caused by herpes virus 2 (Allerton virus) Bovine herpes virus. The incubation period is 2-4 weeks. The same virus causes bovine herpes mamillitis Mamillitis: bovine herpes mamillitis.
  • Unlike BHV-1, BHV-2 seems  to be mechanical/vector spread rather than respiratory/aerosolic so BHV-2 may not be as infectious as BHV-1.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Possible fly transmission.

Timecourse

  • Incubation period is 2-4 weeks.
  • Self cure after 2-3 weeks.
  • Immunity for 1-2 years after infection.

Epidemiology

  • In Africa, where disease is endemic, infection is associated with infection in wild game, up to 85% wild buffalo being affected as well as numerous other game species.
  • Surmised that biting flies responsible for transmission and BHV2 has been isolated from biting flies.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brenner J, Sharir B, Yadin H, Perl S & Stram Y (2009) Herpesvirus type 2 in biopsy of a cow with possible pseudo-lumpy-skin disease. Vet Rec 165 (18), 539-40 PubMed.
  • d'Offay J M, Floyd J G, Eberle R, Saliki J T, Brock K V, D'Andrea G H & McMillan K L (2003) Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 2 DNA in skin lesions from cattle suspected to have pseudo-lumpy skin disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 15 222 (10), 1404-7, 1366-7 PubMed.
  • Plowright W & Jessett D M (1971) Investigations of Allerton-type herpes virus infection in East African game animals and cattle. J Hyg (Lond) 69 (2), 209-22 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dinter Z & Morein B (eds) (1990) Virus Infections of Ruminants. Elsevier Science Publishers.
  • Scott D W (1988) Large Animal Dermatology. Saunders.


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