ISSN 2398-2993      

Jembrana disease

obovis

Introduction

  • Cause: Jembrana disease is caused by Jembrana disease virus (JDV), which is a member of the Lentivirinae genera of the retrovirinae family. JDV is related to, but distinct from bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). JDV is a single-stranded RNA virus and has the smallest genome of any of the lentiviruses.
  • Signs: see below.
  • Diagnosis:
    • JDV is diagnosed in the field based on clinical signs (eg disease only observed in Bali cattle) and post mortem findings consistent with disease.
    • However, Jembrana disease is difficult to differentially diagnose based on clinical signs alone as the disease is often complicated by secondary bacterial infections.
    • Definitive diagnosis is therefore confirmed using laboratory methods such as antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
  • Treatment: ring vaccination and supportive therapy.
  • Prognosis:
    • High morbidity and moderate mortality.
    • If cattle survive the acute phase of infection and do not contract a secondary bacterial infection prognosis is often good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Jembrana disease is caused by Jembrana disease virus (JDV), which is a member of the Lentivirinae genera of the retrovirinae family. JDV is related to, but distinct from bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Bovine immunodeficiency virus.
  • JDV naturally infects Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) and buffalo European buffalo.
  • Experimental infection has been achieved in Bos taurus and Bos indicus but resulted in only mild disease.
  • It is possible that cattle may be infected mechanically via re-using syringes during vaccination campaigns.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Breed.
  • Geographical location.
  • Direct contact between infected and naïve animals.
  • Presence of arthropod vectors.
  • Secondary infections.
  • Poor nutrition.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection with JDV causes a profound lymphopenia, neutropenia, throbocytopenia and anemia and animals will often succumb to secondary bacterial infections as a result of the immunosuppressive effects of the virus.
  • Experimental infection predicts facility rates of between 15-17%.

Timecourse

  • 5-12 days incubation period with a clinical duration of 7 days is most commonly seen.

Epidemiology

  • Epidemiological data suggests spread via biting insects (hematophagous arthropods) and this is further supported by an increased disease incidence during the wet season in Indonesia, when biting insects proliferate.
  • Transmission of disease has been observed between experimentally infected and in contact animals.
  • Other modes of transmission may include via body fluids (milk, semen, urine, tears and saliva) enabling transmission via the intranasal, conjunctival and oral routes Pathogen transmission: overview.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Desport M & Lewis J (2010) Jembrana Disease Virus: Host Responses, Viral Dynamics and Disease Control. Curr HIV Res 8, 53-65 PubMed.
  • Chadwick B J, Desport M, Brownlie J, Wilcox G E, Dharma D M N (1998) Detection of Jembrana disease virus in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow and other tissues by in situ hybridization of paraffin-embedded sections. J Gen Virol 79, 101-106 PubMed.
  • Kertayadnya G, Wilcox G E, Soeharsono S et al (1993) Characteristics of a retrovirus associated with Jembrana disease in Bali cattle. J Gen Virol 74 (9), 765-778 PubMed.
  • Dharma D M N, Budiantono A, Campbell R S F, Ladds P W (1991) Studies on Experimental Jembrana Disease in Bali Cattle. III. Pathology. J Comp Path 105, 397-413.

Other sources of information

  • Brown C & Torres A (2008) USAHA Foreign Animal Diseases. Seventh Edition.
    Committee of Foreign and Emerging Diseases of the US Animal Health Association. Boca
    Publications Group, Inc. Canada, pp 317-321.
  • Büchen-Osmond C Index to ICTVdB virus descriptions. In: Büchen-Osmond C, Ed. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database.version 4 ed: ICTVdB Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code