Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Ischemic teat necrosis

Synonym(s): ITN

Contributor(s): Al Manning , Roger Blowey

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Introduction

  • Cause: unknown, may be associated with digital dermatitis treponemes.
  • Signs: crusting dermatitis at the teat/udder junction.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs or submit samples to Veterinary Pathology at Liverpool University.
  • Treatment: unknown. Anecdotal evidence of response to moisturising creams or salicylic acid.
  • Prognosis: varied, grave prognosis if any teats are self-mutilated.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown: what do we know?
    • The disease is consistently associated with digital dermatitis (DD) treponemes [Treponemes] but these may be an opportunistic pathogen that prevent healing.
    • The teat cup may be the site of new infection. In an unrelated study DD treponemes have been isolated from teat cups [Milking machines].
    • ITN has been reported on herds without DD.

Timecourse

  • There are two common presentations:
    • Acute presentation: the teat is removed within 1-3 days. Sometimes the teat is removed before any lesions are noted.
    • Chronic form: the lesion appears but does not progress, often the teat heals over 1-2 months.

Epidemiology

  • Unknown.
  • Due to the relatively low incidence and prevalence in affected herds it does not appear to be highly contagious.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Clegg S R, Carter S D, Stewart J P, Amin D M, Blowey R W & Evans N J (2016) Bovine ischaemic teat necrosis: a further potential role for digital dermatitis treponemes. Vet rec PubMed.
  • Manning A (2016) Risk factors and treatment options for ischaemic teat necrosis. Cattle practice 24 (2), 67.
  • Kofler J, Innerebner C, Pesenhofer R, Hangl A & Tichy A (2015) Effectiveness of salicylic acid paste for treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cows compared with tetracycline spray and hydrotherapy. Berliner und münchener tierärztliche wochenschrift 128 (7-8), 326–34 PubMed.
  • Amersfort K (2013) Prevalence and risk factors of Udder Cleft Dermatitis in 20 Dutch dairy herds. J dairy sci 97 (8), PubMed.
  • Schultz N & Capion N (2013) Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle. Veterinary journal PubMed.
  • Hartshorn R E, Thomas E C, Anklam K, Lopez-Benavides M G, Buchalova M, Hemling T C & Döpfer D (2013) Short communication: minimum bactericidal concentration of disinfectants evaluated for bovine digital dermatitis-associated Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes. Journal of dairy science 96 (5), 3034–8 PubMed.
  • Evans N J, Brown J M, Hartley C, Smith R F & Carter S D (2012) Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bovine digital dermatitis treponemes identifies macrolides for in vivo efficacy testing. Vet micro 160 (3-4), 496–500 PubMed.
  • Holzhauer M, Bartels C J, van Barneveld M, Vulders C & Lam T (2011) Curative effect of topical treatment of digital dermatitis with a gel containing activated copper and zinc chelate. Vet rec 169 (21), 555 PubMed.
  • Evans N J, Timofte D, Carter S D, Brown J M, Scholey R, Read D H & Blowey R W (2010) Association of treponemes with bovine ulcerative mammary dermatitis. Vet rec 166 (17), 532–3 PubMed.
  • Laven R A & Logue D N (2006) Treatment strategies for digital dermatitis for the UK. Veterinary journal 171 (1), 79–88 PubMed.


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