Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Interdigital hyperplasia

Synonym(s): Interdigital fibroma

Contributor(s): Mark Burnell , Sara Maria Pedersen

Synergy Farm Health logo Farm Dynamics logo

Introduction

  • Cause: either hereditary and/or as a result of chronic irritation/inflammation between the claws.
  • Signs: a firm, fibrus, hairless, ‘thumb-like’, swelling of varying size in the interdigital space.
  • Diagnosis: easily made by lifting the foot and examining the interdigital space.
  • Treatment: often conservative treatment is indicated involving hoof paring and topical treatment. Severe cases require surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: good in most cases although recovery after surgery may be prolonged.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Anything causing chronic irritation in the interdigital space can be a contributing factor in the etiology.
  • Typically this will include overgrowth of horn and sharp edges that inhibit the ‘clearance’ of material from between the claws as well as long toes/shallow heels which tends to increase contact of the interdigital space with slurry.
  • Uneven ground can cause the toes to ‘splay’ when walking and this is thought to stretch and inflame the interdigital skin.
  • Foul and interdigital digital dermatitis can also result in irritation of the interdigital space.
  • When more than one foot is affected it is likely that a hereditary component is involved which may or may not be related to ‘splayed’ feet. The actual mode of inheritance is not understood (dominant or recessive) but current research indicates a high heritability.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Heavy animals, poor environmental hygiene (slurry), rough/uneven ground, overgrowth of horn, breed/genetic predisposition.

Specific

  • Interdigital phlegmon (foul in the foot) may be a precursor to the condition (incomplete resolution).
  • Digital dermatitis infection Digital dermatitis on the growth can be the trigger factor for lameness and patient presentation.

Pathophysiology

  • When the skin of the interdigital space is splayed outwards, superficial scar tissue forms.
  • Chronic irritation of the interdigital skin results in dermal inflammation with extensive hyperproliferation of the upper dermis and disruption of the superficial skin layers.

Timecourse

  • Often the growth has been of long duration when the case is presented and spontaneous resolution is highly unlikely.

Epidemiology

  • The condition is non-infectious, although secondary infection with Treponemes (digital dermatitis Digital dermatitis) may indicate a herd problem of infectious foot disease.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Desrochers A, Anderson D E & St Jean G (2018) Surgical disease and techniques of the digit. Veterinary clinics of North America 24 (3), 535-550.
  • Stock et al (2017) Correlations between breeding values for claw health traits and implications for future genetic evaluations in German Holstein dairy cattle. In: Proceedings of the international lameness conference, 300.


ADDED