Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Horn neoplasia

Synonym(s): Squamous cell neoplasia of horn

Contributor(s): Catherine Fraser , Ben Dustan

Introduction

  • Common disease of Bos indicus, affecting around 1% of the population in India, mainly bullocks.
  • Cause: squamous cell neoplasia of horn.
  • Signs: unilateral loosening of horn with purulent exudate leads to horn loss and exposure of mass of hemorrhagic granulation tissue.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, histopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical resection.
  • Prognosis: good after resection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Squamous cell carcinoma likely arising from the mucosa of the frontal sinus and invading the horn core.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Working bullocks heavily predisposed (93%). 
  • Trauma to the horn base from the tying of ropes to use animals for draught work.
  • Use of paints, tars, oils and varnishes on the horns.
  • UV radiation. Working bullocks used for field work have much more exposure to sunlight.
  • White coated individuals.
  • Hormonal imbalance - all sex hormones are lower in castrated animals and this may be a factor.

Pathophysiology

  • There is squamous metaplasia of the pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium lining the horn core ultimately resulting in squamous cell neoplasia.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Giri D K et al (2011) Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Horn and its Surgical Management- A Report of Three Cases. Int J of Livestock Res 1 (1) VetMedResource.
  • Singh S P, Munish B & Singh G K (2005) Important Aspects of Horn Cancer. The Indian Cow.
  • Zubaidy A J (1976) Horn Cancer in Cattle in Iraq. Vet Path 13 453-454 PubMed.


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