Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Pericarditis

Synonym(s): Hardware disease

Contributor(s): Mike Reynolds , Mark Burnell

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Introduction

  • Cause: pericarditis in the bovine may occur as a result of traumatic pericarditis, where perforation of the pericardial sac with an infected foreign body occurs, or secondary to hematogenous spread of infection or extension of infection from the lungs or pleura.
  • Signs: see below.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, ultrasonography (echocardiography) and/or radiology. 
  • Treatment: treatment of traumatic pericarditis in cattle is often unrewarding.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium that results in the accumulation of fluid or exudate between the visceral and parietal pericardium. 
  • Pericarditis in the bovine may occur as a result of traumatic pericarditis where perforation of the pericardial sac with an infected foreign body occurs Traumatic reticulitis, or secondary to haematogenous spread of infection or extension of infection from the lungs or pleura.

Pathophysiology

  • Fluid accumulation in the pericardium decreased cardiac contractility, stroke volume and consequently cardiac output. 
  • Renal blood flow and arterial pressure are reduced.

Timecourse

  • In acute cases of traumatic reticulo pericarditis clinical signs normally manifest within 24 hours of the foreign body penetrating the reticular wall.

Epidemiology

  • Cases are typically sporadic.
  • However, outbreaks of hardware disease can occur following the introduction of a foreign body such as tyre wire, to a total mixed ration.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Miesner M D & Reppert E J (2017) Diagnosis and Treatment of Hardware Disease. Vet Clin Food Anim (33) pp 513–523 PubMed.
  • Bexiga R, Mateus, Philbey A W, Ellis K et al (2008) Clinicopathological presentation of cardiac disease in cattle and its impact on decision making. Veterinary Record (18), pp 575-580 PubMed
  • Radostits O M, Gay C C, Blood D C & Hinchcliff K W (2005) Diseases of the cardiovascular system. Veterinary medicine. (9), pp 387-389.

Other sources of information

  • Reef V B & McGuirk S M (2015) Diseases of the cardiovascular system. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th Edn. pp 439-441.


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