Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Endocarditis

Synonym(s): Heart valve lesions, vegetative

Contributor(s): , Georgios Oikonomou

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Introduction

  • Cause: the most common endocardial disease seen in cattle is bacterial endocarditis, mainly caused by Trueperella pyogenes or Streptococci.
  • Signs: often recurrent pyrexia, ill thrift, anorexia, reduced body condition score relative to cohort animals, reduced milk yield, tachycardia, a cardiac murmur and /or thrill over the affected valvular region.
  • Diagnosis: see below.
  • Treatment:
    • Long term bactericidal antimicrobials based on culture and sensitivity results.
    • Furosemide Furosemide.
    • In most instances, culling will be the most appropriate course of action.
  • Prognosis:
    • Poor.
    • Recurrence is likely.
    • Long term survival for more than 6 months is guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The most common endocardial disease seen in cattle is bacterial endocarditis mainly caused by Trueperella pyogenes Trueperella pyogenes or Streptococci Streptococci.
  • Lesions are normally vegetative in nature and confined to the valvular endocardium but may also be found in the mural endocardium. See related images.
  • In cattle, bacterial endocarditis most commonly affects the tricuspid valve but has been reported in the mitral, aortic and pulmonic valves as well.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Chronic bacteremia.

Specific

Pathophysiology

  • Acquired endocardial disease is usually insidious in onset before cardiac changes occur which may result in congestive heart failure.
  • Eventually valvular incompetence leads to volume overload of the recipient chamber, an increased end diastolic pressure, decreased contractile function and a further increase in end diastolic pressure.
  • In left sided lesions involving the mitral or aortic valves this leads to increased left atrial pressure and therefore an increased pulmonary venous hypertension.  
  • In tricuspid lesions, right atrial pressure and central venous pressure increases.

Timecourse

  • Endocarditis is insidious in onset so clinical signs may not be seen until the congestive heart failure occurs.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Sherwin V, Baiker K & Wapenaar W (2015) Consequences of endocarditis in an adult cow
    with a ventricular septal defect. Vet Rec Case Rep 3, pp 1-5.
  • Buczinski S, Tsuka T & Tharwat M (2012) The diagnostic criteria used in bovine bacterial endocarditis: A meta-analysis of 460 published cases from 1973 to 2011. The Veterinary Journal 193 (2), pp 349–357 PubMed.
  • Buczinski S, Rezakhani A & Boerboom D (2010) Heart disease in cattle: Diagnosis, therapeutic approaches and prognosis. The Veterinary Journal 184 (3) pp 258–263 PubMed.
  • Edwards G T, Schock A & Smith L (2009) Endocarditis in a British heifer due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection. Veterinary Record 165 (1), pp 28-29 PubMed.
  • Bexiga R, Mateus, Philbey A W, Ellis K, Barrett D C & Mellor D J (2008) Clinicopathological presentation of cardiac disease in cattle and its impact on decision making. Veterinary Record
    162 (18), pp 575-580 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Reef V B & McGuirk S M (2015) Diseases of the cardiovascular system. In: Smith B.P., Large Animal Internal Medicine. 5th edn. pp 439-441.
  • Radostits O M, Gay C C, Blood D C & Hinchcliff K W (2005) Diseases of the cardiovascular system. Veterinary medicine. 9th edn. pp 387-389


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