ISSN 2398-2993      

Cystitis

obovis
Contributor(s):

Seamus O'Shea

Lisa Whitfield


Introduction

  • Cause: usually secondary to a predisposing factor in the bladder or urethra, such as urine retention, urolithiasis or neoplasia.
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, pollakiuria, hematuria (gross or occult), colic if severe.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, urinalysis, urethroscopy/cystoscopy.
  • Treatment: correction of the primary problem and antibiotics when indicated.
  • Prognosis: good if uncomplicated, guarded if chronic or reoccurring. Also depends on predisposing factor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacterial growth and infection of the bladder wall or urethra secondary to irritation or retention of urine.
  • Ascending infection from urethral/ genital bacterial population. Less commonly; descending infection from nephritis.
  • Corynebacterium spp Corynebacterium spp & E. Coli E. Coli are common causative agents. These are commonly found in vaginal bacterial flora.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Chemical or mechanical irritation of the bladder wall or urethra - urolithiasis, urethral stricture, neoplasia, previous catheterization or urethral trauma.
  • Urinary retention.
  • Ascending/ descending infection.

Specific

  • Difficult parturition.
  • Prolonged gestation [prolonged gestation].
  • Contaminated catheterization.
  • Urolithiasis Urolithiasis: bladder stone or urethral stone.
  • Trauma to bladder, urethra, or urethral opening causing irritation and ascending infection.
  • Abdominal abscess: abscess/neoplasia adherent to bladder and preventing normal emptying.

Pathophysiology

  • Irritation of the bladder wall or urethra secondary to calculi, excess sediment, other physical or chemical irritation leads to inflammation and secondary colonization of bacteria.
  • Urinary retention secondary to physical or neurologic disruption of urine flow.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Makhdoomi D M & Gazi M A (2013) Obstructive urolithiasis in ruminants – A review. A review,vet world 6 (4) pp 233-238.

Other sources of information

  • Constable P D, BVSc (Hons), MS, PhD, DACVIM, Dean, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois. Bovine Cystitis and Pyelonephritis. MSD Veterinary Manual.

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