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Cervicitis

obovis

Synonym(s): cervix


Introduction

  • The cervix forms the anatomical and functional barrier between the vagina and the uterus, and is formed from a series of mucosal-lined collagenous rings.
    • The cervical mucus helps prevent bacteria ascending into the uterus from the lower genital tract.
  • It is often overlooked in physical examinations and differential diagnosis lists for causes of infertility in cattle, but is susceptible to inflammation, infection and trauma.
  • Cause: can be secondary to trauma, urovagina or metritis/endometritis/pyometra.
  • Signs: reduced fertility with normal uterine findings.
  • Diagnosis: vaginoscopy to identify the presence of a swollen and prolapsed 2nd cervical fold, +/- vaginal pus.
  • Treatment: dependent on cause. May include PGF2a, correction of initiating problem and/or antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Cervicitis is defined as inflammation of the cervix and may be associated with:
  • It can be classified into 3 stages of severity:
    • C0 – normal cervix.
    • C1 – cervicitis with a swollen and prolapsed 2nd cervical fold.
    • C2 – cervicitis with a swollen, reddened and prolapsed 2nd cervical fold.

Pathophysiology

  • Cervicitis is often caused due to exposure to inflammation generated by luminal debris from the uterus (metritis or endometritis) or from the vagina (urine due to urovagina)
    • However, it can occur independently from both of these mechanisms.
  • Cervicitis may eventually induce subsequent inflammation within the uterus (endometritis), leading to reduced fertility.
    • An inflamed cervix may also be responsible for blood contamination of the uterine body during passage of the cervix required for AI -> subfertility.

Epidemiology

  • Prevalence is estimated at between 15-60% in cows 42-50 days postpartum.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hartmann D, Rohkohl J, Merbach S, Heilkenbrinker T, Klindworth H P, Schoon H A, Hoedemaker M (2016) Prevalence of cervicitis in dairy cows and its effect on reproduction. Theriogenology 85, 247-253 PubMed.
  • Bilber R O (2016) Management of reproductive disease in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 32, 387-410.
  • Gilbert R O (2016) Management of reproductive disease in dairy cows. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 32, 387-410 PubMed.
  • De Boer M W, LeBlanc S J, Dubuc J, Meier S, Heuwieser W, Arlt S, Gilbert R O & McDougall S (2014) Systematic review of diagnostic tests for reproductive-tract infection and inflammation in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 97 (7), PubMed.
  • Deguillaume L, Geffre A, Desquilbet L, Dizien A, Thoumire S, Vorniere C, Concstant F, Fournier R, Chastnant-Maillard S (2012) Effect of endocervical inflammation on days to conception in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 95, 1776-1783 PubMed.
  • Sheldon I M, Lewis G S, LeBlanc S & Gilbert R O (2006) Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65, 1516-1530 PubMed.
  • Gilber R O, Coubrough R I, Venter B J, Witcomb M A (1985) Successful transfer of embryos recovered from a cow with chronic cervicitis of mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial aetiology a case report. Theriogenology 23, 593-596

Other sources of information

  • WHO (2017) Critically important antimicrobials. [online]. Available at: www.who.int.

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