Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Bovine iritis

Synonym(s): Silage eye, uveitis

Contributor(s): Ben Dustan , David Williams

Introduction

  • Cause: local immune/hypersensitivity reaction of the iris (and surrounding tissues), thought to be associated with an infective agent, most commonly Listeria spp.
  • Signs: corneal opacity, miosis, corneal/scleral neovascularisation, ptosis, pannus, hypopyon, lacrimation, serous to mucopurulent ocular discharge, photophobia, palpebral edema, blindness.
  • Diagnosis: history (exposure to silage/Listeria), clinical signs.
  • Treatment: bulbar sub-conjunctival administration of corticosteroid and antimicrobial with Gram +ve spectrum, +/- topical ophthalmic antimicrobial preparation.
  • Prognosis: fair to good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Hypersensitivity/local immune reaction of the iris, thought to be in response to an infective agent, most commonly associated with Listeria spp Listeria monocytogenes presence.
  • Listeria likely to have gained access to the eye either by direct infection across the conjunctival sac or from the gingival margins by trigeminal nerve migration.

Pathophysiology

  • Iritis and miosis can lead to complete uveal tract inflammation and uveitis with keratic precipitate (KP) and hypopyon developing.
  • Marked pannus and palpebral edema can predispose to secondary infections.
  • Chronic/refractory cases may require enucleation Surgery: enucleation (rare).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • R A Laven & K R Lawrence (2006) An outbreak of iritis and uveitis in dairy cattle at pasture associated with the spplementary feeding of baleage. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 54 (3), 151-152 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Andrews A H, Blowey R W, Boyd H & Eddy G (2008) Bovine Medicine. 2nd edn. Ocular Diseases. pp 923.
  • Blowey R W & Weaver A D (1991) A Colour Atlas of Diseases & Disorders of Cattle. Ocular disorders.pp 136.


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