Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Bovine immunodeficiency virus

Synonym(s): BIV

Contributor(s): Tracy Anderton , Richard Booth

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Introduction

  • Cause: bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV).
  • Signs: lymphadenopathy, persistent lymphocytosis.
  • Diagnosis: ELISA, PCR, virus isolation.
  • Treatment: primary disease is unlikely to be treated.
  • Prognosis: good if asymptomatic, poor if clinical signs, however positive cattle should be culled because of the risk to others.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • BIV is a bovine specific retrovirus.
  • Similarities to other lentiviruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FeLV), caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), equine infectious anemia (EIA) and Maedi Visna Virus (MVV).
  • Related to Jembrana disease virus Rickettsia: jembrana disease, a virus causing acute disease of Bali cattle.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Stress can activate the BIV virus causing seropositive animals to progress to clinical disease.
  • As yet, no evidence for vertical transmission like some lentiviruses (HIV).

Specific

  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) exacerbates signs of FIV in cats.
  • Experimental animals have suggested a similar association between BIV and bovine lymphosarcoma/leukemia.

Pathophysiology

  •  The pathophysiology of natural infection of cattle is not clear.
  • Cattle infected with BIV consistently -> viremia -> lymphadenopathy and persistently high WBC count.
  • EITHER a period of quiescence may follow with decreased WBC, immunosupression and secondary infections, emaciation and death
  • OR animal continues to be clinically normal.

Timecourse

  • BIV is a chronic disease.
  • There can be a long incubation period between infection and appearance of clinical signs.
  • Infected cattle are infected for life and do not eliminate the virus.

Epidemiology

  • Spread occurs from an infected animal; herds with one seropositive animal are most likely to have several more seropositive animals in the herd.
  • Contaminated needles/instruments, shared colostrum, biting flies may help spread infection via body fluids from one animal to another.
  • Mating with an infected animal.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Zhang S, Wood C, Xue W, Krukenberg SM, Chen Q & Minocha H C (1997) Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus. Clin diagn lab immunol 4 (2), 232–5 PubMed.
  • Gonda M A (1992) Bovine immunodeficiency virus. AIDS 6 (8), 759–76.

Other sources of information

  • Muluneh A (1994) Seroprevalence of Bovine Immunodeficiency-virus (BIV) Antibodies in the Cattle Population in Germany. Zoonoses and Public Health 41 (1-10), 679-684.
  • Brownlie J, Collins ME, Heaton P (1994) Bovine Immunodeficieny-like virus - a potential cause of disease in cattle? Vet Rec 134 (12), 289-291.


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