Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Bacillary hemoglobinuria

Synonym(s): clostridial diseases, clostridium hemolyticum, haemolyticum novyi type D

Contributor(s): Mike Reynolds , John Tulloch

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Introduction

  • Cause: Clostridia novyi type D.
  • Signs: acute death, rumen stasis, depression, reduced defecation, abdominal discomfort, passage of dark red urine, anemia, icterus.
  • Diagnosis: clinical and post mortem findings consistent with disease. Fluorescent antibody test on affected tissue.
  • Treatment: 25,000-40,000 IU procaine penicillin per kg body weight has been advocated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories and blood transfusions in some cases.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacilliary hemoglobinuria is caused by Clostridia novyi type D Clostridium spp.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Cattle grazed on marsh or wet areas.
  • Spores may survive within hay and cause disease when fed to animals later in the season.

Specific

  • Migrating liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica) Fasciola hepatica, activating fungal spores.
    • Migrating liver fluke, activate quiescent spores within the liver parenchyma.
    • This leads to rapid spore multiplication and the mass release of toxin. This results in pronounced tissue damage and toxemia.

Timecourse

  • Hours.

Epidemiology

  • Occurs worldwide.
  • Mostly commonly occurs in grazed livestock of any age.
  • Normally sporadic in nature.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Mueller K (2015) Clostridial diseases in cattle and sheep. Cattle practice 23 (1), 127-131 VetMedResource.
  • Otter A & Davies I (2015) Disease features and diagnostic sampling of cattle and sheep post mortem examinations. In practice 37, 293-305.
  • Harwood D G (2007) Clostridial disease in cattle: part 2. UK vet 12 (2), 21-24.


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