Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Agalactiae: secondary

Synonym(s): Lactation failure

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , Neil Paton

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Introduction

  • Agalactiae (also known as lactation failure) is the failure to produce mammary secretion.
  • The etiology is divided into primary and secondary.
    • This article will provide an overview of secondary agalactiae in cattle.
Information on primary agalactiae may be found by following the link in the related content list, to the side of this page.
  • Cause: There are numerous potential causes for secondary agalactia. These include:
    • Infectious:
      • Peracute/acute toxic mastitis (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp).
      • Leptospirosis.
    • Nutritional (likely to cause hypoglactia):
      • Fungal toxin ingestion (Acremonium coenophialum, Claviceps purpurea and Clavicles africana).
      • Nutritional deficiencies.
      • Water deprivation.
    • Physical:
      • Trauma/injury to the mammary glands.
      • Self-suckling and/or suckling by other animals in the herd.
    • Other:
      • Neoplasia.
  • Signs:
    • In addition to an absence of milk production, clinical signs that may be associated with secondary agalactia are often specific to the primary disease process, ie depression, reduced feed intake, swollen firm mammary gland(s) and pyrexia.
  • Diagnosis: based on the clinical sign of failure to produce mammary secretions post parturition once primary agalactiae and a physical obstruction of the teat canal has been excluded. 
  • Treatment: treatment is aimed at the primary disease process that is causing agalactia.
  • Prognosis: this is dependent on the underlying condition/primary disease process.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Systemic disease or physical impairment that results in the reduction and eventually failure to produce mammary secretions.  

Timecourse

  • Secondary agalactiae can occur during any period of the lactation.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ohfuji S (2012) Secretory carcinoma of the mammary gland in an 8-year-old Holstein-Friesian dairy cow. Vet Q 32(2), 113-115 PubMed.
  • Al-Tamimi H J et al (2003) Thermoregulatory response of dairy cows fed ergotized barley during summer heat stress. J Vet Diagn Invest 15(4), 355-360 PubMed.
  • Blaney B J et al (2000) Sorghum ergot (Claviceps africana) associated with agalactia and feed refusal in pigs and dairy cattle. Aust Vet J 78(2), 102-107 PubMed.
  • Djordjevic S et al (1993) Restriction‐endonuclease analysis of Australian isolates of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo from cattle with agalactia and abortion. Aust Vet J  70 (3),  98-100 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Haskell Scott R R (2011) Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ruminant. John Wiley & Sons.


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