Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Abomasal impaction

Synonym(s): Abomasum

Contributor(s): Matthew Barden , John Tulloch

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Introduction

  • Cause: primary disorder due to abomasal hypomotility or dietary impaction due to ingestion of poorly digestible material.
  • Signs: condition or production loss, inappetence, distended abdomen.
  • Diagnosis: suspected on clinical signs, confirmed on laparotomy.
  • Treatment: flush abomasum with water and mineral oil, best results via rumenotomy.
  • Prognosis: good if primary disorder or dietary impaction treated early; poorer if chronic condition or if abomasotomy is required.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Primary disorder:
  • Dietary impaction:
    • Impaction with poor quality roughage.
      • Most commonly occurs in young, pregnant beef animals fed poor quality roughage during periods of cold weather.
      • Increased risk if the roughage is provided at a short cut length as intakes are higher and there is a quicker transit time to the abomasum. 
    • Impaction with or sand/gravel.
      • If poor grazing is on sandy soil, or sand is inadvertently included in ration or pica. 
    • Impaction secondary to luminal foreign body, eg plastic bags, twine or phytobezoars.
  • Secondary to other conditions such as:
  • Can occur in calves if:
    • Large quantities of bedding are eaten, usually associated with poor quality milk replacer.
    • Large amounts of hair are ingested (trichobezoar) due to excessive licking.

Predisposing factors


 

Pathophysiology

  • Impaction can affect the abomasal body, the pyloric antrum or both. 
  • Following impaction and abomasal atony, hypochloremia, hypokalemia Potassium, and metabolic alkalosis Acid base can develop.

Timecourse

  • Usually chronic with condition loss noted over 1-2 weeks. 
  • If a severe case then can lead to abomasal rupture and acute peritonitis. Severe cases will result in death in 3-6 days after the first clinical signs. 
  • Sand impactions can be more insidious and cause a steady deterioration over several weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Primary disorder – periparturient dairy cattle, can occur sporadically or due to change in transition cow management Nutritional requirements of high yielding dairy cows.
  • Dietary impaction:
    • Outbreaks can occur due to shared risk factors such as increased intakes due to cold weather or pregnancy combined with poor quality roughage.
  • Acute septic peritonitis can occur if abomasum ruptures.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Simsek A et al (2015) Abomasal impaction due to sand accumulation in two cows. (Table 1), pp 125–127.
  • Melendez P et al (2007) An outbreak of sand impaction in postpartum dairy cows. Canadian Veterinary Journal 48 (10), pp 1067–1070 PubMed.
  • Wittek T, Constable P D & Morin D E (2005) Abomasal impaction in Holstein-Friesian cows: 80 cases (1980-2003), Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 227 (2), pp 287–91.
  • Simkins K M (1997) Omasal and abomasal impaction in beef suckler cows. Vet Rec 141 (18), pp 466–469 PubMed.
  • Croft R A A S H (1983) Abomasal Impaction of Cattle in Saskatchewan. Can Vet J 24 (12), pp 375–380 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Constable P D, Hinchcliff K W, Done S H, Grünberg W & Radostits O M (2017) Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats. St. Louis, Missouri. Elsevier.
  • Grant M M (2015) Jubb, Kennedy, and Palmer's pathology of domestic animals. St. Louis, Missouri. Elsevier.
  •  Smith B P (2015) Large animal internal medicine. St. Louis, Missouri. Elsevier.
  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. Wellington, N.Z. VetLearn.
  • Susan L F & Ducharme N G (2004) Farm animal surgery. St Louis, Missouri. Saunders.


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