Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

3D syndrome

Synonym(s): Western NSW (New South Wales) Cattle Deaths

Contributor(s): Mike Reynolds , Erika Bunker

Introduction

  • Cause: at present the etiology of 3D syndrome is unknown and there is an absence of its peer review in the literature.
  • Signs: drooling, diarrhea and death.
  • Diagnosis:
    • Clinical signs and post mortem findings consistent with disease (particularly oesophagitis), during the at risk period between November and February.
    • 3D Syndrome has only been reported in the Western districts (Mossgiel, Hay and Ivanhoe regions) of NSW Australia.
    • Exclusion of known etiological agents.
  • Treatment:
    • Euthanasia, on welfare grounds, should be considered in all clinical cases.
    • If treatment is attempted, it should focus on the treatment of sepsis. Namely: intravenous fluid therapy, non- steroidal anti-inflammatories and antimicrobials.
  • Prognosis: the disease is almost invariably fatal. 

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • The cause of 3D syndrome in cattle is as yet unknown with the disease first documented in 2006.

Predisposing factors

General

  • The risk period has been defined as November to February.  

Specific

  • Cattle grazed during the summer months, typically after good winter rains followed by a period of little or no rainfall and heat conditions. 
  • Cattle usually in good body condition.
  • On some affected properties there was evidence of recent herd exposure to Pestivirus, however, diseased animals were not persistently infected.

Pathophysiology

  • Various endemic disease pathogens, for example, Salmonella spp Salmonella spp have been found to be present in cases of 3D syndrome, yet none are a consistent finding.  
  • It is postulated that physical abrasion from plant materials or chemical damage from plant or other toxins damage the mucosa of the esophagus and intestine allowing pathogenic bacteria cause signs typically seen in disease outbreaks.

Timecourse

  • Acute onset with mortality within 72 hours in the majority of cases.

Epidemiology

  • Calves more than 5 months of age are normally affected.
  • Not all properties affected in all outbreaks.
  • The same property may have affected and unaffected mobs.
  • No evidence of spread between properties.
  • Outbreaks have occurred in some years only.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Bailey G et al (2015) Review of cases submitted to investigate the cause of cattle deaths in Western New South Wales (so called 3D syndrome). [online] Available at: www.flockandherd.net.au. Last accessed 27 April 2018.

Organisation(s)

  • NSW Animal health Surveillance, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries and Local land Services 2014/Issue 1.
  • NSW Animal health Surveillance, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries and Local land Services 2015/Issue 4. 
  • NSW Animal health Surveillance, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries and Local land Services 2016.
  • Animal health Surveillance, Northern Territory Government,  Department of Primary Industries and Local land Services 2015.


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