Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Trichostrongylus axei

Contributor(s): Ash Phipps , Andrew Forbes

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Phylum: nematoda.
  • Class: chromadorea.
  • Order: rhabditida.
  • Family: trichostrongylidae.
  • Genus: trichostrongylus. 
  • Species: T. axei.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Adults inhabit the abomasum.
  • Eggs are passed in the feces.
  • L1 and L2 inhabit the feces.
  • L3 inhabit the feces and surrounding herbage.

Lifecycle

  • Egg. 
  • 1st stage larvae. 
  • 2nd stage larvae. 
  • 3rd stage (infective) larvae (may undergo hypobiosis). 
  • Adult - in the abomasum.
  • Prepatent period = 3 weeks.

Transmission

  • By ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated pasture. 

Pathological effects

  • Trichostrongylus axei causes gastritis with superficial erosions of the gastric mucosa. There may also be hyperaemia and edema of the gastric mucosa.
  • Clinically affected animals have poor growth, diarrhea and anorexia.
  • Hypoproteinaemia is also a common finding in affected animals due to reduced feed intake and loss of proteins from gastric mucosal damage. 

Control

Control via animal

  • Good management, nutrition and control of other infectious diseases.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Numerous broad spectrum anthelmintics are effective against adult worms and larvae. The products available will vary depending on the country.
  • Anthelmintic classes that are effective against adult worms and larvae include:

Control via environment

  • As Trichostrongylus axei also infects other ruminants, swine and horses, therefore mixed species grazing will not prevent infection.

Vaccination

  • No vaccines are available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMed Resource.
  • Van Wyk J A & Mayhew E (2013) Morphological identification of parasitic nematode infective larvae of small ruminants and cattle: A practical lab guide. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 80 (1), pp 1-14 PubMed.
  • Hutchinson G W (2009) Nematode parasites of small ruminants, camelids and cattle diagnosis with emphasis on anthelmintic efficacy and resistance testing. Australia and New Zealand Standard Diagnostic Procedures, pp 22-26.

Other sources of information

  • Junquera P (2018) Trichostrongylus spp, parasitic round worms of cattle, sheep, goats and swine. Biology, prevention and control. Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei. [online] Available at: http://parasitipedia.net. Last accessed 28 January 2018.
  • Bowman D & Mulcahy G (2017) Equis: Trichostrongylus axei. [online] Vetlexicon Equis ISSN 2398-2977, Last accessed 28 January 2018.
  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2010) Diseases of cattle in Australasia: a comprehensive textbook. In: New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education. pp 155-159.
  • Anderson D E & Rings M (2008) In: Current Veterinary Therapy-E-Book: Food Animal Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp 80.
  • Foreyt W (2001) In: Veterinary Parasitology Reference manual. 5th Edn. Blackwell Publishing Company. pp 80-8.
  • Blood D C, Gay C C, Radostits O M & Hinchcliff K W (2000) In: Veterinary medicine: a textbook of the diseases of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horses. WB Saunders Company Limited. pp 1339-1347.
  • Urquhart G, Armour A, Duncan J, Dunn A & Jennings F (1996) In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2nd Edn. Blackwell Publishing Company. pp 23-26.

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