Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Streptococcus spp

Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy Hassel

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Kingdom: bacteria.
  • Phylum: firmicutes.
  • Class: bacilli.
  • Order: lactobacillales.
  • Family: streptococcaceae.
  • Genus: streptococcus.

Etymology

  • Streptococcus grow in chains or pairs. The name comes from the Greek word Streptós  - twisted, pliant, (like a chain) and is couple with the modern Latin coccus - spherical bacterium, derived from the Greek word for berry, 'Kokkos'.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Distributed worldwide.
  • Found on the skin, mucosal surfaces of the upper respiratory and lower urogenital tract and within the digestive system.

Lifecycle

  • Cells divide by binary fission to produce pairs or chains.

Transmission

  • Transmission can occur through poor udder health management (use of a common cloth and failure to use post milking teat disinfection).
  • Environment-to-cow (eg via contaminated bedding). 
  • Occasionally from other species (eg dogs and cats - S. canis).
  • Through contamination from carrier flying insects.

Pathological effects

  • Immunological:
    • Host defense depends on phagocytosis.
    • Hyaluronic acid capsules antiphagocytic.
    • Antibodies raised against M protein, an antiphagocytic surface protein.
    • Recovered animals have short-term resistance to infection.
    • Immunity is serotype-specific.
  • Pathological:
    • Pyogenic bacteria produce suppurative host response.
    • Adhesins mediate attachment.
    • Extracellular products include streptolysin O and S, hyaluronidase, protease, streptokinase, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins.
    • Virulence mechanisms of highly pathogenic infections are unresolved.

Other Host Effects

  • Reduced milk production.
  • Septicemia.

Control

Control via animal

  • Early dry-off, with dry cow therapy Dry cow therapy.
  • Isolate and treat/cull infected animals.
  • Isolate and treat exposed animals.
  • Implementation of standard mastitis prevention measures.
  • Older animals can be more susceptible (eg S. uberis) therefore they should be intensively monitored.
  • Vaccination has been proven to increase resistance to infection.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotic treatment.

Control via environment

  • Implementation of good hygiene practices.
  • Use of separate protective clothing (glove, mask, footwear, etc) when examining infected animals.
  • Controlling contact between cattle and other species such as cats and dogs.

Vaccination

  • There are vaccines available for some species which are commonly used in the USA:
    • S.uberis (eg Streptococcus uberis bacterin-Hygieia biological laboratories).
  • There are UK companies (eg Ridgeway Biologicals) which will make tailored emergency vaccines against S.uberis specific for the herd affected.  

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Clarke L L, Fathke R L, Sanchez S & Stanton J B (2016) Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination. J Vet Diagn Invest 28 (4), 423-8 PubMed.
  • Shome B R, Bhuvana M, Mitra S D, Krithiga N, Shome R, Velu D, Banerjee A,
    Barbuddhe S B, Prabhudas K & Rahman H (2012) Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk. Trop Anim Health
    Prod
    44 (8), 1981-92 PubMed.
  • Whist A C, Østerås O & Sølverød L (2007) Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates at calving and lactation performance within the same lactation. J Dairy Sci 90 (2), 766-78 PubMed.
  • Tikofsky L L & Zadoks R N (2005) Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd. J Dairy Sci 88 (8), 2707-13 PubMed.
  • Zadoks R N, Gillespie B E, Barkema H W, Sampimon O C, Oliver S P & Schukken Y H (2003)
    Clinical, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Streptococcus uberis infections in dairy herds. Epidemiol Infect 130 (2), 335-49 PubMed.
  • Zadoks R N, Allore H G, Barkema H W, Sampimon O C, Wellenberg G J, Gröhn Y T & Schukkent YH (2001) Cow- and quarter-level risk factors for Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. J Dairy Sci 84 (12), 2649-63 PubMed.
  • Phuektes P, Mansell P D, Dyson R S, Hooper N D, Dick J S & Browning G F (2001) Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with mastitis. J Clin Microbiol 39 (4), 1460-6.
  • Bramley A J (1982) Sources of Streptococcus uberis in the dairy herd. I. Isolation from bovine faces and from straw bedding of cattle. J Dairy Res 49 (3), 369-73.

Other resources


ADDED