Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Schmallenberg virus

Synonym(s): orthobunyavirus

Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy Hassel

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: bunyavirales.
  • Family: peribunyaviridae.
  • Genus: orthobunyavirus.
  • Species: schmallenberg virus.

Etymology

  • The virus was named "Schmallenberg virus (SBV)" as this is the name of the German town where the first case was identified.

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • SBV cases have been reported in Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, UK, Luxembourg, Italy, France, Spain, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Poland and Estonia.

Lifecycle

  • Because SBV was discovered very recently, not much is known about its lifecycle. It is presumed that SBV lifecycle resembles that of other bunyaviruses.
  • The virus enters the cell via endocytosis.
  • Changes in pH results in conformational changes which enable transcription to start.
  • Viral mRNA is produced and then translated.
  • The virus is believed to be assembled in tubular virus factories situated near the Golgi complex.
  • Mature virus particles are then transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane where they are released by exocytosis.

Transmission

  • SBV is believed to be transmitted by insect vectors of the culicoides species and then vertically in utero.
  • SBV may also be transmitted via semen.
  • Direct transmission has not yet been demonstrated.

Pathological effects

  • Incubation period is 1-4 days.
  • Clinical signs include:
    • Fever.
    • Reduction in milk yield.
    • Diarrhea.
    • Abortion (often characterized by malformed animals, although the degree of malformation is dependent on the stage of gestation when infection occurred) Abortion and stillbirths.

Control

Control via animal

  • Because SBV is considered to have a low impact on animal health, trade restrictions have not been implemented by the EU and OIE. Movement bans would be ineffective because the disease is transmitted by an insect vector.
  • Countries outside the EU have imposed restrictions on the import of live animals, semen and embryos.

Vaccination

  • Inactivated vaccines are available in some countries.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wernike K, Conraths F, Zanella G, Granzow H, Gache K, Schirrmeier H, Valas S, Staubach C, Marianneau P, Kraatz F, Höreth-Böntgen D, Reimann I, Zientara S & Beer M (2014) Schmallenberg virus-two years of experiences. Prev Vet Med 116 (4), 423-34 PubMed.
  • Conraths F J, Peters M & Beer M (2013) Schmallenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavirus infection in ruminants in Europe: potential global impact and preventive measures. N Z Vet J 61 (2), 63-7 PubMed.
  • Doceul V, Lara E, Sailleau C, Belbis G, Richardson J, Bréard E, Viarouge C, Dominguez M, Hendrikx P, Calavas D, Desprat A, Languille J, Comtet L, Pourquier P, Eléouët J F, Delmas B, Marianneau P, Vitour D & Zientara S (2013) Epidemiology, molecular virology and diagnostics of Schmallenberg virus, an emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe. Vet Res 15 (44), 31 PubMed.
  • Beer M, Conraths F J & van der Poel W H (2012) 'Schmallenberg virus'--a novel orthobunyavirus emerging in Europe. Epidemiol Infect 141 (1), 1-8 PubMed.

Organisation(s)


ADDED