Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Bovine rhinitis virus

Synonym(s): Rhinovirus

Contributor(s): Tammy Hassel, Veronica Fowler

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: picornaviridae.
  • Genus: aphthovirus.
  • Species: bovine Rhinitis A Virus (BRAV) and Bovine Rhinitis B Virus (BRBV).

Etymology

  • Gk:rhin, rhis- nose.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Found within the bovine respiratory tract particularity the epithelium of the pharynx and trachea and the lungs.

Transmission

  • Direct contact, aerosol and contaminated fomites.

Pathological effects

  • Clinical signs including fever, nasal discharge and increased respiration rate.
  • Histological analysis may show epithelial necrosis in the turbinates and trachea and interstitial pneumonia may be evident in the lungs.
  • Disease may be complicated by stress or secondary bacterial infection.

Other Host Effects

  • Many infections are subclinical or mild in severity.
  • If infected with BRV, animals are more susceptible to bacterial infections such as pneumonia.
  • Virus may be carried in pharyngeal tissues for up to 1 month.

Control

Control via animal

  • High stocking density is a known risk factor for the spread of BRDC caused by BRV.

Vaccination

  • None available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResources.
  • Hause B M, Collin E A, Anderson J, Hesse R A & Anderson G (2015) Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease. PLoS One 10 (3), PubMed.
  • Hollister J R, Vagnozzi A, Knowles N J & Reider E (2008) Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of bovine rhinovirus type 2 shows it is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology 373 (2), 411-425 PubMed.
  • Kurogi H, Inaba Y, Takahashi E, Sato K & Goto Y (1975) Serological differentiation of bovine rhinoviruses. Natl inst anim health Q 15, 201-202 PubMed.
  • Kurogi H, Inaba Y, Goto Y, Takahashi A & Sato K (1974) Isolation of rhinovirus from cattle in outbreaks of acute respiratory disease. Arch gesamte virusforsch 44, 215-226 PubMed.
  • Betts A O, Edington N, Jennings A R & Reed S E (1971) Studies on a rhinovirus (EC11) derived from a calf. II. Disease in calves. J comp pathol 81, 41-48 PubMed.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1969) Rhinoviruses of bovine origin. Br vet J 125, 7-8 PubMed.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1972) Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. I. Growth in vitro of strain RS 3x. Arch gesamte virusforsch 36, 166-176 PubMed.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1972) Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. II. Some physical and chemical properties of strain RS 3x. Arch gesamte virusforsch 36, 177-188.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1972) Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. III. The pathogenesis and pathology of infection with strain RS 3x in calves. Arch gesamte virusforsch 36, 335-342 PubMed.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1972) Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. IV. Neutralizing activity against strain RS 3x in bovine sera. Arch gesamte virusforsch 36, 343-350 PubMed.
  • Ide P R & Darbyshire J H (1972) Studies with a rhinovirus of bovine origin. V. Serological relationships between the RS3x and other bovine rhinovirus strains. Arch gesamte virusforsch 37, 243-252 PubMed.

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