Bovis ISSN 2398-2993

Candida spp

Synonym(s): yeast

Contributor(s): Veronica Fowler , Tammy Hassel

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Division: ascomycota.
  • Class: saccharomycetes.
  • Order: saccharomycetales.
  • Family: saccharomycetaceae.
  • Genus: candida.

Etymology

  • (L) candidus - 'white'.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Worldwide on plant material and as commensals in the digestive and urogenital tracts of animals.

Transmission

  • Usually endogenous.

Pathological effects

  • Immunosuppression/concurrent disease/disturbance of normal flora is an important predisposing factor to disease development due to this organism.
  • Main defense is neutrophil phagocytosis.
  • Neuraminidase and proteases may play a part in virulence.
  • Cell wall glycoproteins have an endotoxin-like activity.
  • Granulomas are rare; the inflammatory response is usually neutrophilic.
  • Lesions characterized by non-healing ulcers covered with white plaques.
  • Can lead to abortion in cattle.
  • Diseases caused in cattle:
    • Stomatitis Stomatitis/enteric infection.
    • Respiratory tract/lung infection.
    • Mastitis (usually mild infection - may be introduced during administration of antibiotics). Unusual forms of mastitis

Control

Control via animal

  • Correct underlying clinical condition, eg immunosuppressive disease.
  • Avoid prolonged use of antimicrobials.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Topical application of 1% Iodine Iodine.

Control via environment

  • Good husbandry to avoid infection via milker's hands, machines, floor, feed etc.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dworecka-Kaszak B, Krutkiewicz A, Szopa D, Kleczkowski M & Biegańska M (2012) High Prevalence of Candida Yeast in Milk Samples from Cows Suffering from Mastitis in Poland. The Scientific World Journal PubMed.
  • Şeker E (2010) Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in western Turkey. Mycopathologia 169 (4), 303–308 PubMed.
  • De Casia Dos Santos R & Marin J M (2005) Isolation of Candida spp. from mastitic bovine milk in Brazil. Mycopathologia 159 (2), 251–253 PubMed.
  • Krukowski H, Tietze M, Majewski T & Rózański P (2001) Survey of yeast mastitis in dairy herds of small-type farms in the Lublin region, Poland. Mycopathologia 150 (1), 5–7 PubMed.
  • Costa E O, Ribeiro A R, Watanabe E T & Melville P A (1998) Infectious bovine mastitis caused by environmental organisms. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B 45 (2), 65–71 PubMed.

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