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Most bacterial infections that extend to cause osteomyelitis in reptiles are opportunistic bacteria infecting an immunocompromised host. Husbandry deficiencies or underlying disease process contribute to immune deficiency.

Written by Tom Dutton BVM&S CertAVP(ZooMed) MRCVS
Reviewed by Robert Johnson BVSc MANZCVS (Feline Medicine) CertZooMed BA

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Trichoepithelioma is a benign basal cell neoplasia of the hair follicle leading to accumulation of sebum, hair and keratin debris. It's the most commonly found cutaneous neoplasia in guinea pigs.

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by Anna Meredith MA VetMB CertLAS DZooMed MRCVS

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Hydronephrosis is dilatation of the renal pelvis because of obstruction of urine outflow. There is a slow increase in pelvic pressure, with loss of tubules by degeneration and atrophy. Prognosis in ferrets is poor if bilateral hydronephrosis.

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM(Herpetology) MRCVS

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