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Pyramidal growth syndrome

Pyramiding of the shell in chelonians is regarded as a syndrome of captivity and rarely occurs in the wild, and often associated with tortoises kept under unnatural conditions, with inadequate diet and humidity being main contributors. The syndrome is not fully understood with speculation about various factors. One controlled trial shows a specific cause and effect between nutrients, humidity and pyramiding.

Written by Sarah Pellett BSc(Hons) MA VetMB CertAVP(ZooMed) DZooMed(Reptilian) MRCVS
Reviewed by Robert Johnson BVSc MACVSc CertZooMed BA

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In guinea pigs disruption to the normal biochemical mechanisms of lens metabolism results in altered hydration and subsequent osmotic effects which leads to the formation of opacity. The lens, lens capsule or both may be involved.

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by Nathaile Wissink LicVet CertAVP(ZooMed) DZooMed(Reptilian)

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

The exact etiology of DCM in ferrets is not known, ie idiopathic. Associations with taurine or carnitine deficiencies, as seen in cats and dogs, have been suggested, but could thus far not be confirmed in ferrets. Other causes reported in other animals and humans include pre-existing endocrine disease, intoxications or infectious disease, eg viruses.

Written by Cathy Johnson-Delaney DVM
Reviewed by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM(Herpetology)

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