Pedunculated lipomas are a frequent cause of strangulating intestinal obstruction in older horses. Partial or complete strangulating pedunculated lipoma can lead to congestion and edema of intestinal wall, followed by hemorrhagic fluid collecting in the lumen and the affected section of bowel loses mucosal integrity. Bacteria and endotoxin penetrate the bowel wall and enter the peritoneal cavity leading to hypovolemia, endotoxemia and metabolic acidosis which ultimately causes circulatory collapse and death.
Updated by Anna Hollis BVetMed DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS
Equine metabolic syndrome
This syndrome of obesity and recurrent laminitis in horses has been likened to human metabolic syndrome. Treatment usually involves weight loss if overweight/obese, exercise, treatment of laminitis as determined by the needs of individual patient, and pharmacological intervention, eg metformin or levothyroxine. Treatment can control clinical signs; largely predicated by the severity of laminitic lameness and associated hoof degradation.
Updated by Nicola Menzies-Gow MA VetMB PhD DipECEIM CertEM(IntMed) MRCVS
Cardiac causes and treatment of poor performance
Cardiac murmurs and reduced athletic performance are very common in horses. However, cardiovascular disease is an uncommon cause of poor performance (<2% of cases) and in these cases it is usually a cardiac arrhythmia that is the underlying problem. There is usually no association between the presence of a cardiac murmur and lack of athletic performance unless the abnormality is very severe, and the horse is no longer able to compensate for the abnormal flow.
Written by Lesley Young BVSc PhD DVA DipECVA DVC MRCVS & Karen Blissitt BVSc DVA PhD DipECVA MRCVS
Reviewed by Romain Pariaut DVM DipACVIM DipECVIM-CA