Internal fixation is the use of implants placed deep into the skin and in contact with bone for the purpose of maintaining realignment of previously distracted bone fragments and/or for providing sufficient stabilization for healing. Implants can be plates, screws, wires, pins or a combination of these.
Updated by Jarred Williams MS DVM PhD DipACVS-LA DipACVECC
Orbit neoplasia is an uncommon ocular disorder, with either primary or secondary extension neoplasia. Treatment depends on the size of the tumor, but often involves excision, exenteration or euthanasia. Primary tumors include adenocarcinoma, neuroepithelial carcinoma, lipoma, medulloepithelioma, melanoma, meningioma, osteoma.
Updated by Anna Hollis BVetMed DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS
The following new topics have been added to the Toxicology category:
Methylxanthine toxicity can be caused by caffeine from coffee beans, soft drinks, guarana, and OTC medications; theophylline from tea; theobromine from cocoa beans and chocolate.
Pentachlorophenol toxicity is caused by exposure to wood treated with pentachlorophenol or contaminated water.
Slaframine is a mycotoxin produced by Rhizoctonia legumincola, which parasitizes legume forages, most commonly Trifolium pratense (red clover).
Written by Karyn Bischoff BS DVM MS DipABVT
Reviewed by Birgit Puschner DVM PhD DipABVT