Endotoxemia is a systemic disorder caused by the host's response to gram-negative bacteria.
Treatment is aimed at eliminating the source of gram-negative sepsis, binding endotoxin after its release but before inflammatory response is initiated, supportive patient care, and moderation of host's inflammatory response.
Updated by Jarred Williams MS DVM PhD DipACVS-LA DipACVECC
Ionophore antibiotic toxicity
Toxicity caused by ionophores, used as antibiotics, coccidiostats, and growth promotants in ruminants. Ionophores antibiotics include monensin, lasalocid, naracin, salinomycin, laidlomycin and maduramycin. Clinical signs usually occur within 24 h of exposure, and death can occur within 24 hours.
Written by Karyn Bischoff BS DVM MS DipABVT
Reviewed by Birgit Puschner DVM PhD DipABVT
Primary pulmonary neoplasia is extremely rare in horses, however the most common primary pulmonary neoplasia is granulosa cell myxoma of bronchial epithelium. Occasional secondary metastases occur, most often squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma, melanoma, mesothelioma.
Updated by Anna Hollis BVetMed DipACVIM DipECEIM MRCVS