- Prolongation of coagulation time absence of or abnormal forms of vitamin-K dependent Factors II, VII and X.
- Evaluation of coagulation system in cases of suspected Vitamin K deficiency or antagonism, in combination with other tests.
Normal (reference) values
- Reference values may differ slightly between laboratories.
- Example of reference interval: 18-25 seconds.
- Prolongation of PIVKA clotting times may occur with:
- Cholangiohepatitis [Liver: cholangitis] .
- Chronic liver disease of any cause .
- Small intestinal bacterial metabolism disruption (overgrowth, prolonged antibiotic therapy).
- Biliary obstruction.
- Portosystemic vascular anomalies.
- Systemic neoplasia.
- - Protein losing enteropathy .
- Rodenticide toxicity .
- Inherited deficiencies of Factor VII, II or X.
Errors and Artifacts
- Artifactual prolongation may occur if there has been clotting of the specimen that has not been detected; or if there is dilution of the specimen because of excess anticoagulant compared to the volume of blood.