- Cause : trauma, eg fall; fatigue fracture.
- Signs : acute severe unilateral hindlimb lameness [Musculoskeletal: gait evaluation] , soft tissue swelling, hindquarter asymmetry, muscle atrophy [Musculoskeletal: physical examination - adult] .
- Diagnosis : rectal palpation , scintigraphy , radiography , ultrasound [Ultrasonography: bone joints] .
- Treatment : rest.
- Prognosis : good for non-articular fractures; guarded for long-term soundness, if articular fractures.
- [Musculoskeletal: gait evaluation] . (Figs. 1-2)
- Abduction, adduction, swinging limb motion, rotation of limb.
- Crepitus (often indicates acetabular fracture, decreases with time since injury).
- (Fig. 3) (in injuries of prolonged duration >2 weeks):
- Usually gluteals.
- Semimembranosus, semitendinosus.
- Soft tissue swelling over the tuber coxae or stifle/upper thigh.
- Rectal examination:
- Crepitus (usually associated with external crepitus).
- Swelling (often associated with acetabular fracture) - maybe hematoma, callus formation.
- Good - there is no relationship between fracture location and long-term survival, however horses that sustain an acetabular fracture are less likely to return to athletic function.
- Fair - comminuted fractures involving the acetabulum or sacroiliac joint → prolonged weight bearing on contralateral limb → secondary complications, eg degenerative joint disease of the proximal interphalangeal joint ; distortion of pelvic canal may → future dystocia .