Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Gentamicin

Contributor(s): Jill Pearson

Introduction

Name

  • Gentamicin.

Class of drug

  • Aminoglycoside antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

  • The aminoglycosides as a class are more active against gram-negative bacteria, but some staphylococcal   Staphylococcus spp  and streptococcal   Streptococcus spp.  (fecalis) species are sensitive.
  • All obligate anaerobic bacteria and many hemolytic streptococci are resistant.
  • When used for 'blind' therapy of undiagnosed serious infections gentamicin is usually given in conjunction with a penicillin and/or metronidazole   Metronidazole  .
  • Aminoglycosides are more active in an alkaline environment.
  • Their use in domestic animals is limited by nephrotoxicity and more rarely, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade.
  • Microbial resistance is a concern, although many bacteria resistant to gentamicin may be susceptible to amikacin   Amikacin  .
    Ineffective in low oxygen sites, eg abscesses, exudates, because oxygen rich environment is required to be effective

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Nephrotoxic, ototoxic or neurotoxic agents, eg amphotericin B, cisplatin, frusemide, methoxyflurane
  • Increased risk of toxicity.

Ticarcilin

  • Synergism may occur.

Non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (atracurium, pancuronium, tubocurarine, vecuronium)

  • May be enhanced by aminoglycosides.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Curl J L & Curl J S (1988) Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in laboratory rabbits. Am J Vet Res 49 (12), 2065-2067 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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