Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Epinephrine

Synonym(s): Adrenaline

Contributor(s): Jill Pearson

Introduction

Name

  • Epinephrine.

Class of drug

  • Catecholamine with both alpha- and beta-adrenergic activity.

Description

Storage requirements

  • Epinephrine is sensitive to light and air, and is unstable in 5% dextrose.

Uses

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Indications

  • Primarily used in the treatment of anaphylaxis and in cardiac resuscitation.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • Toxicity may occur if used with other sympathomimetic amines, eg isoproterenol because of additive effects.
  • The effects of epinephrine may be potentiated by antihistamines, eg chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, and thyroxine.
  • Propranolol may block the beta effects of epinephrine, thus facilitating an increase in blood pressure.
  • Alpha-blocking agents or diuretics may negate or diminish the pressor effects of epinephrine.
  • When epinephrine is used with drugs that sensitize the myocardium, eg halothane   Halothane  , high doses of digoxin, monitor for signs of arrhythmias.
  • Try to avoid the use of epinephrine in halothane-anesthetized animals   Halothane  .
  • Hypertension may result if epinephrine is used with oxytocic agents   Oxytocin  .

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.
  • The Veterinary Formulary. 4th edn (1998) Bishop Y (Ed). British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
  • Flecknell P A (1996) Laboratory Animal Anaesthesia. 2nd edn. Academic Press.

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