Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Chloramphenicol

Contributor(s): Jill Pearson

Introduction

Name

  • Chloramphenicol.

Class of drug

  • Bacteriostatic antibiotic.

Uses

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Indications

Gram-positive infections

Gram-negative infections

Anaerobic infections

Other sensitive organisms

  • Chlamydiaspp.
  • Mycoplasmaspp.
  • Rickettsiaspp.
  • Resistant organisms areNocardia,Mycobacteriumspp.
  • Acquired resistance may occur inEnterobacteriacae.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

Anticonvulsants (pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone and phenytoin)
  • Chloramphenicol is an irreversible inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 dependent enzymes and so increases the plasma levels of these drugs   Pentobarbital  .
  • Recovery from the inhibitory effects requires synthesis of new liver enzymes and can take up to 3 weeks.

Iron salts and Vitamin B12

  • Decreased hematologic response may be seen.

Rifampicin

  • Accelerates the metabolism of chloramphenicol, thus decreasing serum levels.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Based on Small Animal Formulary. Tennant Bryn (1999) 3rd edn. Cheltenham: BSAVA.

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