Lapis ISSN 2398-2969

Eye: cataract

Contributor(s): David L Williams, David Gould, Joanna Hedley, Vladimir Jekl

Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Congenital.
    • Acquired:
      • Juvenile (incidental non-hereditary lens opacities).
      • Senile.
      • Diabetes mellitus.
      • Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection.
      • Associated with intraocular infections (uveitis).
      • Secondary to glaucoma, traumatic lens injury, uveitis.
  • Signs: lens opacity of varying degree.
  • Diagnosis: signs, ophthalmologic examination.
  • Treatment: depends on cause.
  • Prognosis: depends on cause.

Presenting signs

  • Ocular opacity.
  • Blindness.
  • Discoordination (very rare).

Acute presentation

  • Lens opacity.
  • Movement disorders (very rare).

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide.

Age predisposition

  • Young if congenital.
  • Older animals in case of senile cataracts (>6 years) .

Breed predisposition

Public health considerations

  • E. cuniculi is zoonotic - risk for immunocompromised people, however in the last 3 decades, no spontaneous disease in humans associated with transmission from the rabbit was reported.

Cost considerations

  • Expensive if phacoemulsification is used to remove the opaque lens material and/or intraocular implantation.

Special risks

  • Lens-induced uveitis Eye: uveitis is often associated with E. cuniculi cataract.

Pathogenesis

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Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gomes F E, de Matos R & Ledbetter E (2018) Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits. Open Vet J 8 (2), 125-130 PubMed.
  • Sanchez R F, Everson R et al (2018) Rabbits with naturally occurring cataracts referred for phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation: a preliminary study of 12 cases. Vet Ophthal 21 (4), 399-412 PubMed.
  • Jekl V, Hauptman K & Knotek Z (2015) Oculoscopy in rabbits and rodents. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 18 (3), 417-429 PubMed.
  • Peng X, Roshwalb S, Cooper T K et al (2015) High incidence of spontaneous cataracts in aging laboratory rabbits of an inbred strain. Vet Ophthal 18 (3), 186-190 PubMed.
  • Sieg J, Hein J, Jass A et al (2012) Clinical evaluation of therapeutic success in rabbits with suspected encephalitozoonosis. Vet Parasitol 187 (1-2), 328-332 PubMed.
  • Holve D L, Mundwier K E & Pritt S L (2011) Incidence of spontaneous ocular lesions in laboratory rabbits. Comp Med 61 (5), 436–440 PubMed.
  • Jeklova E, Jekl V, Kovarcik K et al (2010) Usefulness of detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies for diagnosis of clinical encephalitozoonosis in pet rabbits. Vet Parasitol 170 (1-2), 143-188 PubMed.
  • Gelatt K N (1975) Congenital cataract in a litter of rabbits. JAVMA 167 (7), 598-599 PubMed.

Organisation(s)

  • Jekl V (2015) Diagnostics and Successful Management of Diabetes Mellitus in a Pet Rabbit. In: International Conference on Avian and Herpetological and Exotic Mammal Medicine, ICARE. pp 374.
  • Varga M (2014) Ophthalmic Diseases. In: Textbook of Rabbit Medicine. 2nd edn. Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, UK. pp 350-366.
  • Williams D (2012) The Rabbit Eye. In: Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets. Ed: William D. Blackwell Publishing, UK. pp 15-55.
  • Suckow M A, Brammer D W, Rush H G & Chrisp C E (2002) Biology and Diseases of Rabbits. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine. Eds: Fox J G, Anderson L C, Loew F M & Quimby F W. 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York. pp 353–354.


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