Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Thyroid gland: neoplasia

Contributor(s): David Bruyette, Angie Hibbert

Introduction

  • Hyperthyroidism Hyperthyroidism is the most commonly diagnosed feline endocrinopathy.
  • Hyperthyroidism is associated with hyperplastic or neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroid tumors:
    • Benign:
      • Adenoma or multinodular adenomatous hyperplasia.
      • The most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
    • Malignant:
      • Adenocarcinoma (2-5% of all tumors).
      • May be associated with excessive hormone secretion (hyperthyroidism) or be functionally silent (non-secretory carcinoma).
  • Thyroid tumors can become large if the gland is cystic.
  • Thyroid neoplasia is rarely seen in pedigree cats.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown but current focus of research.
  • Epidemiological risk factors:
    • Increasing age.
    • Non-pedigree breed.
    • Use of a litter box.
    • Diet including fish.
    • Exposure to canned food.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Harvey A M, Hibbert A, Barrett E L et al (2009) Scintigraphic findings in 120 hyperthyroid cats. J Feline Med Surg 11 (2), 96-106 PubMed.
  • Hibbert A, Gruffyd-Jones T, Barrett E L et al (2009) Feline thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis and response to high-dose radioactive iodine treatment. J Feline Med Surg 11 (2), 116-124 PubMed.
  • Wakeling J, Everard A, Brodbelt D, Elliot J, Syme H (2009) Risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism in the UK. JSAP 50 (8), 406-414 PubMed.
  • Sartor L L, Trepanier L A, Kroll M M et al (2004) Efficacy and safety of transdermal methimazole in the treatment of cats with hyperthyroidsim. JVIM 18 (5), 651-655 PubMed.
  • Phillips D E, Radlinsky M G, Fischer J R et al (2003) Cystic thyroid and parathyroid lesions in cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 39 (4), 349-354 PubMed.
  • Wisner E R, Nyland T G (1998) Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (4), 973-991 PubMed.
  • Peterson M E, Becker D V (1995) Radioiodine treatment in 524 cats with hyperthyroidism. JAVMA 207 (11), 1422-8 PubMed.
  • Kintzer P P, Peterson M E (1991) Thyroid scintigraphy in small animals. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) (2), 131-139 PubMed.
  • Peterson M E, Kintzer P P, Cavanagh P G et al (1983) Feline hyperthyroidism - pretreatment clinical and laboratory evaluation of 131 cases. JAVMA 183 (1), 103-110 PubMed.
  • Patnaik A K, Lieberman P H (1979) Feline anaplastic giant cell adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. Vet Pathol 16 (6), 687-692 PubMed.
  • Leav I, Schiller A L, Rijnberk A et al (1976) Adenomas and carcinomas of the canine and feline thyroid. Am J Pathol 83 (1), 61-122 PubMed.


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