Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Hemostatic disorders: inherited

Synonym(s): Bleeding disorders

Contributor(s): Severine Tasker

Introduction

  • Signs: often associated with hemorrhage - usually present at a young age.
  • Treatment: symptomatic often requiring blood product administration.
  • Prognosis: depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

  • Defective platelet adhesion:
    • Reduced von Willebrand factor (VWF) very uncommon in cats.
    • Reduced platelet function (rare). Chediak-Higashi sydrome Chediak-Higashi syndrome   in blue smoke Persians.
    • Blood vessel defects (very rare).
  • Coagulation factor deficiency:
    • Factor XII (Hageman) deficiency Factor XII deficiency: most common inherited coagulopathy in cats but does no tcause in vivo bleeding if present in isolation.
    • Hemophilia A (Factor VII deficiency) seen in Persians.
    • Hemophilia B (Factor IX deficiency: Christmas disease) seen in Birman Birman, British Shorthair British shorthair and Siamese cats Siamese.
    • Vitamin-K responsive coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats Vitamin K1 responsive coagulopathy (Devon Rex).
    • Factor I +/- XI deficiency in Maine Coons Maine Coon.
    • Isolated reports of other factor deficiencies.

Pathophysiology

  • May be defect in:
    • Primary hemostasis  Primary hemostasis  - involves platelet adhesion via vWF, to the subendothelial collagen, resulting in the formation of a platelet plug, as well as reflex vasoconstriction of the blood vessel.
    • Secondary hemostasis  Secondary hemostasis 01   Secondary hemostasis 02  - involves formation of fibrin by coagulation factors to stabilize the primary hemostatic platelet plug. Coagulation cascade is classically divided into intrinsic and extrinsic pathways with a final common pathway.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMed Resource and PubMed.
  • Brown R (2008) Haemophilia in Maine Coon cats. Vet Rec 163, 667 PubMed.
  • Brooks M & DeWilde L (2006) Feline Factor XII Deficiency. Comp Contin Educ Pract Ve t28, 148-155.
  • Goree M, Catalfamo J L, Aber S & Boudreaux M K (2005) Characterization of the mutations causing hemophilia B in 2 domestic cats. J Vet Intern Med 19, 200-204 PubMed.
  • Smith W, Day T & Mackin A (2005) Diagnosing Bleeding Disorders. Comp Contin Educ Pract Vet 27, 828-843.
  • Bay J D, Scott M A & Hans J E (2000) Reference values for activated coagulation time in cats. Am J Vet Res 61, 750-753 PubMed.
  • Callan M B, Griot-Wenk M E, Hackner S G & Giger U (2000) Persistent thrombopathy causing bleeding in 2 domestic shorthaired cats. J Vet Intern Med 14, 217-220 PubMed.
  • Maggio-Price L & Dodds W J (1993) Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B) in a family of British shorthair cats. JAVMA 203, 1702-1704 PubMed.
  • Cowles B E et al(1992) Prolonged bleeding time of Chediak-Higashi cats corrected by platelet transfusion. Thromb Haemost 67, 708-712 PubMed.
  • Soute B A, Ulrich M M, Watson A D, Maddison J E, Ebberink R H & Vermeer C (1992) Congential deficiency of all vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors due to a defective vitamin K-dependent carboxylase in Devon Rex cats. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 68, 521-525 PubMed.
  • Littlewood J D & Evans R J (1990) A combined deficiency of factor VIII and contact activation defect in a family of cats. Br Vet J 146, 30-35 PubMed.
  • Maddison J E et al(1990) Vitamin K-dependent multifactor coagulopathy in Devon Rex cats. JAVMA 197, 1495-1457 PubMed.
  • Kier A B et al(1980) The inheritance pattern of factor XII (Hageman) deficiency in domestic cats. Can J Comp Med 44, 309-314.
  • Cotter S M et al(1978) Hemophilia A in three unrelated cats. JAVMA 172, 166-168 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Stokol T (2005) Disorders of haemostasis. In: BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Clinical Pathology. Villiers E & Blackwood L (eds). pp 83-98, BSAVA, Gloucester.


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