Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Eye: keratoconjunctivitis sicca

Synonym(s): Dry eye

Contributor(s): Dennis E Brooks, Peter Renwick, David Williams, Alison B Clode

Introduction

  • Ocular surface disease resulting from deficient production of aqueous phase of precorneal tear film.
  • May involve decreased production of lipid or mucin portions of tear film, leading to qualitative (rather than quantitative) tear film deficiency.
  • Occurs to a lesser extent than in the dog and may easily be overlooked.
  • Cause: secondary to FHV-1 induced blepharitis; drug induced (general anesthetics, sedative, anticholinergics).
  • Signs: mild blepharospasm, minimal ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperemia, mild corneal vascularization, corneal ulceration (potentially recurrent).
  • Diagnosis: combination of clinical signs and low Schirmer tear test Schirmer tear test (<5 mm wetting/min) is diagnostic for quantitative deficiency. Many normal cats will have low STT however, so clinical signs are essential component of diagnosis. Qualitative deficiency (lipid and/or mucin layers) leads to clinical signs with normal STT, and may be diagnosed via tear film breakup time (uncommonly performed).
  • Treatment: palliative medical therapy, consisting of topical artificial tears, prophylactic antibiotics (if secondary bacterial infection is present), and/or anti-inflammatories. Treat the underlying cause if possible. Depending upon underlying cause, topical cyclosporine may be beneficial, however efficacy is not as evident as with canine KCS therapy. Surgical therapy (parotid duct transposition) in non-responsive cases.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Chronic eyelid inflammation leading to decreased production of aqueous tear film.
  • Decreased aqueous tear film leads to relative overproduction of mucin, along with signs of corneal inflammation (vascularization, edema, ulceration).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to purchase a 30 day trial, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Gelatt K N (2013) Veterinary Ophthalmology. 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons.


ADDED