Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Dental fracture

Synonym(s): Tooth fracture

Contributor(s): David Crossley, Alex Smithson

Introduction

  • Fracture of tooth may expose pulp which can become inflammed and infected leading to pain and likely eventual periapical abscessation.
  • Cause: traumatic.
  • Signs: painful (variable expression).
  • Treatment: endodontics, 'root canal therapy' (to save tooth), extraction.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • RTA.
  • Cage biting.
  • Chewing hard objects (including bones).
  • Fights.
  • High-rise injury.
  • FORLs.

Pathophysiology

  • Exposure of pulp due to fracture   →   inflammation and infection of pulp ('pulpitis')   →   necrosis of pulp   →   periapical pathology (abscessation/granulation tissue/cyst). Tooth discoloration Dental trauma: tooth discoloration, from pulp necrosis, may occur.
  • Pulp may still become inflammed (with potential pathology as above) even if not fully exposed as thin dentine is poorly protective.

Timecourse

  • Immediate onset re discomfort and pulp compromise.
  • Weeks to years re periapical pathology.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bennett J W, Kapatkin A S, Marretta S M (1994) Dental composite for the fixation of mandibular fractures and luxations in 11 cats and 6 dogs. Vet Surg 23 (3), 190-194 PubMed.
  • Davidson J R & Bauer M S (1992) Fractures of the mandible and maxilla. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22 (1), 109-119 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Dentistry. Crossley & Penman, BSAVA.
  • Veterinary Dentistry for the General Practitioner. (2004) Gorrel C, Saunders.


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