Felis ISSN 2398-2950

Brain: neoplasia choroid plexus tumor

Synonym(s): Choroid plexus carcinoma; Choroid plexus papilloma

Contributor(s): Laurent Garosi, Simon Platt

Introduction

  • Rare type of primary brain tumor.
  • Signs:  depending on location of the tumor can cause focal forebrain signs or focal cerebello-medullary signs - occasionally diffuse forebrain signs if causes secondary obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Diagnosis: signs, MRI, definitive diagnosis only by biopsy (often post-mortem).
  • Treatment: palliative medical treatment, palliative ventriculo-peritoneal shunting if obstructive hydrocephalus, surgical resection, radiotherapy
  • Prognosis: tend to invade the ventricular system, can cause drop metastasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system.
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Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Arise from the choroid plexus of the lateral, third or fourth ventricles.
  • Most commonly arise in the fourth ventricle.
  • Less often in the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Presently unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Choroid plexus cells arise from a primitive medullary epithelium and are related to ependymal cells. 
  • Choroid plexus tumors may be either papillomas, which are more common, or carcinomas.
  • Choroid plexus carcinoma are rare compared to their more benign counterpart. They have historically been distinguished from papillomas by their cellular anaplasia, high mitotic rate, invasiveness, and metastatic implantation.
  • Local microscopic spread within the ventricular system can occur with choroid plexus papilloma and distant metastases to the subarachnoid space occur in up to half of the cat with choroid plexus carcinoma.
  • Because of their ventricular orientation choroid plexus tumor have a tendency to obstruct cerebrospinal pathways, particularly when they arise in the fourth or third ventricles. The result is obstructive hydrocephalus.

Timecourse

  • Insidious onset and progressive.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dickinson P J (2014) Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities for intracranial tumors. J Vet Intern Med 28 (4), 1165-1185 PubMed.
  • Tomek A, Cizinauskas S, Doherr M et al (2006) Intracranial neoplasia in 61 cats: Localisation, tumour types and seizure paterns. J Feline Med Surg (4), 243-253 PubMed.
  • Troxel M T, Vite C H, Massicotte C et al (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging features of feline intracranial neoplasia: retrospective analysis of 46 cats. J Vet Intern Med 18 (2), 176-189 PubMed.


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