Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Female: bacterial venereal disease screening

Synonym(s): Bacterial culture of the reproductive tract

Contributor(s): Annalisa Barrelet, Madeleine L H Campbell, Rob Lofstedt, Graham Munroe, Prof Peter Timoney, Elaine Watson

Overview

Sampling

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Tests

Methodologies

UK

  • For CEM certification in UK, sample must be processed by  approved laboratory  (lists for Europe from the HBLB).
  • For CEM cultured on chocolate agar with and without containing antibiotics to reduce overgrowth, under microaerophilic conditions   Taylorella equigenitalis: culture - chocolate agar    Taylorella equigenitalis  .
  • Culture continued for at least 6 days before certificate is issued.
  • For aerobic venereal pathogens, cultured on blood and MacConkey agar under aerobic conditions.
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of swabs for CEM organism may also be used in the UK.

This method is not recognized for import/export testing in the UK.

  • An immunofluorescence test (IFT) for CEM may also be used in addition to culture.

This is currently only available in France.

USA

  • For CEM certification in USA, swabs must be tested by a laboratory approved for this purpose by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory, USDA, APHIS, Ames, Iowa.
  • Swabs for CEM cultured on chocolate agar with and without antibiotics to reduce bacterial and fungal overgrowth and incubated under microaerophilic conditions   Taylorella equigenitalis: culture - chocolate agar    Taylorella equigenitalis  .
  • Culture plates must be incubated for at least 7 days before a negative certificate is issued.
  • For aerobic venereal pathogens, swabs should be cultured on blood and MacConkey agar under aerobic conditions.

Availability

  • Only designated laboratories can be used for CEM certification.

Validity

Sensitivity

  • Sensitivity of culture media and incubation conditions to support the growth of streptomycin-sensitive and resistant strains of T. equigenitalisshould be continually monitored using control strains of the organism.

Specificity

  • Identification of strains of T. equigenitalisor other venereal pathogens should be determined by morphological, cultural and biochemical examination, antigenic analysis using monospecific or polyvalent sera or analysis.

Technique (intrinsic) limitations

  • Inability to control growth of bacterial or fungal contaminants on cultural plates can hinder or prevent detection of T. equigenitalis. Incubation of culture plates must be for an adequate period of time to detect slow growing strains of T. equigenitalis.

Technician (extrinsic) limitations

  • Poor swabbing technique can result in false negatives.
  • Technician inexperienced in the bacteriological examination for CEM may fail to recognize the causal bacterium, especially if present in very small numbers and in mixed culture.

Result Data

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Breuil M F et al(2009)Indirect immunofluorescence test using polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis. Res Vet Sci2[Epub ahead of print]PubMed.
  • Wakeley P R et al(2006)Development of real time PCR for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalisdirectly from genital swabs and discrimination from Taylorella asinigenitalis. Vet Microbiol118(3-4), 247-254PubMed.
  • Watson E D (1997)Swabbing protocols in screening for contagious equine metritis. Vet Rec140(11), 268-271PubMed.
  • Timoney P J (1996) Contagious equine metritis. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis19(3), 199-204PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Horserace Betting Levy Board (2016)Codes of Practice.5th Floor, 21 Bloomsbury Street, London WC1B 3HF, UK. Tel: +44 (0)207 333 0043; Fax: +44 (0)207 333 0041; Email:enquiries@hblb.org.uk; Website:http://codes.hblb.org.uk.
  • Ricketts S (2004)How to Collect Reproductive Swabs in Stud Practice.In: Proc 43rd BEVA Congress. Equine Vet J Ltd, Newmarket. pp 226.


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