Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Therapeutics: chloramphenicol

Preparations

  • Chloramphenicol  Chloramphenicol  :
  • Broad-spectrum.
  • Bacteriostatic.
    May inhibit the bactericidal action of beta-lactam antibacterials. Do not use simultaneously
  • Active against rickettsial and chlamydial infections.
  • Majority of anaerobes.
  • Most Gram-positive erobes.
  • Non-enteric aerobes, including ActinobacillusBordetellaHaemophilusand Pasteurellaspp.
  • Enterobacteriaceae, eg Escherichia coli  Escherichia coli  and Salmonellaspp   Salmonella spp  are susceptible but plasmid-mediated resistance is widespread.
  • Unreliable activity against Mycoplasma  Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas  and Proteus.
  • Often used for suppression of secondary bacterial infections in viral disease.
  • Used in human medicine to treat Salmonella typhi(typhoid).
    Do not use in animals intended for human consumption - this is prohibited
    Use to treat individual animals not a group
    Avoid drug-skin contact - wear gloves during handling and administration
  • Readily crosses cellular barriers.
  • Diffuses through body   →   sites of infection that other antibacterials cannot reach, eg cerebrospinal fluid, brain, eye.
  • Inactivated in the liver by conjugation.
  • Excreted in the urine and bile.
  • Rapidly metabolized in the horse   →   limited use.
  • Thiamphenicol:
  • Similar to chloramphenicol.
  • Florphenicol:
  • Similar to chloramphenicol.
  • Less likely to cause blood dyscrasias (cats).
  • May be active against some strains resistant to chloramphenicol.
  • See also:

Further Reading

Publications

Other sources of information

  • Derived fromThe Veterinary Formulary4th edn (1998) Bishop, Y (Ed.). British Veterinary Association and Royal Pharmaceutical Society.


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