Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Conjunctivitis: mycotic

Contributor(s): Graham Munroe, William C Rebhun

Introduction

  • Incidence: rare cause of conjunctivitis in UK but more common in subtropical/tropical countries.
  • Cause: usually secondary to fungal contamination of a penetrating injury or other conjunctival insult.
  • Signs: many infections present as localized fungal granulomas near the limbus or mucocutaneous junctions; conjunctivitis.
  • Diagnosis: mycotic culture and sensitivity; cytology of conjunctival swabs/scrapings; biopsy of granuloma(s).
  • Treatment: debridement and prolonged administration of topical/subconjunctival antimycotic drugs, eg 1% miconazole.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Specific

  • Penetrating conjunctival injury.
  • Chronic topical treatment of external eye.
  • Other conjunctival diseases/injuries.

Pathophysiology

  • The mycotic flora of the external eye of normal horses has been reported from the USA   Eye: microbiology - overview  but the organisms isolated are not constant inhabitants of the conjunctival sac and are indicative of the fungally contaminated environment of the horse.
  • Usually secondary complication of a conjunctival penetrating injury or other damage.
  • May also follow prolonged ocular treatment topically with antibiotics and/or corticosteroids - often presenting as keratoconjunctivitis.
  • Many fungal infections of the conjunctiva present as localized granulomas.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications


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