Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Bladder: urinary tract infection

Synonym(s): Cystitis, Lower urinary tract infection

Contributor(s): Carla Sommardahl, Rachael Conwell

Introduction

  • Primary cystitis is rare in the horse.
  • Cause: usually often secondary to a predisposing factor in bladder or urethra such as urine retention, urolithiasis or neoplasia.
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, pollakiuria, hematuria (gross or occult), colic if severe.
  • Diagnosis: urinalysis, urethroscopy/cystoscopy.
  • Treatment: antibiotics and correction of the primary problem.
  • Prognosis: good if uncomplicated, guarded if chronic or reoccurring and depends on predisposing factor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Bacterial growth and infection of the bladder wall or urethra secondary to irritation or retention of urine.

Predisposing factors

General

Specific

  • Urolithiasis Bladder: calculi: bladder stone or urethral stone.
  • Neurologic disease affecting urination Bladder: paralysis.
  • Sabulous material in bladder affecting emptying.
  • Trauma to bladder Bladder: rupture, urethra, or urethral opening causing irritation and ascending infection.
  • Abdominal abscess Abdomen: abscess/neoplasia adherent to bladder and preventing normal emptying.
  • Prolonged administration of NSAIDs Therapeutics: anti-inflammatory drugs.

Pathophysiology

  • Irritation of the bladder wall or urethra secondary calculi, excess sediment, or chemical irritation leads to inflammation and secondary colonization of bacteria.
  • Urinary retention secondary to physical or neurologic disruption of urine flow.
  • NSAID (phenylbutazone Phenylbutazone) toxicity Toxicity: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, which results in removal of mucosal glycosaminoglycan layers, allowing adherence of crystals, with reduced mucosal blood flow and increased mucosal permeability. This ultimately leads to increased susceptibility to ulceration and infection.

Timecourse

  • Depends on predisposing factor.

Epidemiology

  • Depends on predisposing factor.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Aleman M, Nieto J E & Higgins J K (2011) Ulcerative cystitis associated with phenylbutazone administration in two horses. JAVMA 239 (4), 499-503 PubMed.
  • Barrell E & Hendrickson D A (2009) Tumours of the equine bladder: what makes treatment of these cases so difficult? Equine Vet Educ 21 (5), 267-268 VetMedResource.
  • Rendle D et al (2008) Long-term management of sabulous cystitis in five horses. Vet Rec 162 (24), 783-787 PubMed.
  • Duesterdieck-Zellmer (2007) Equine urolithiasis. Vet Clin Equine 23 (3), 613-629 PubMed.
  • Schumacher J (2007) Hematuria and pigmenturia of horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 23 (3), 655-675 PubMed.
  • Torske K et al (1992) Dysuria and stranguria associated with colonic ulceration and abdominal abscess in a horse. Can Vet J 33 (12), 809-811 PubMed.


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