Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Staphylococcus spp

Contributor(s): Ruth Morgan, Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Micrococcaceae.
  • Genus:Staphylococcus.

Etymology

  • Gk:staphule- bunch of grapes; Gk:kokkos- grain, berry, seed.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Many commensals on mucosal and skin surfaces.

Transmission

  • Endogenous infection.
  • Infection from environment.

Pathological effects

  • Some species kill leukocytes.
  • Cell envelope constituents may be antiphagocytic.
  • Peptidoglycan and cell-mediated immunity intensify the inflammatory response in abscesses.
  • Cell-mediated immunity localizes infection.
  • Clearance depends on phagocytosis.
  • Immunodeficient animals have frequent infections.
  • No lasting immunity after recovery.
  • Pathogenic staphylococci usually coagulase-positive.
  • Range of other enzymes and toxins such as leukocidin, alpha toxin, capsule, peptidoglycan, adhesins.
  • Typically form abscesses or cause chronic dermatitis .
  • Botryomycosis: chronic, ulcerative wound infection with fibrosis and suppuration .
  • Cellulitis in limbs of thoroughbred   Thoroughbred  racehorses.
  • Abortion   Abortion: overview  and mastitis   Mammary gland: mastitis  in mares.
  • MRSA   Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  wound infections following surgery or hospitalization.

Other Host Effects

  • Coagulase-positive species commensal on skin and upper respiratory tract.
  • Coagulase-negative species part of normal skin flora.

Control

Control via animal

  • Drain and irrigate abscesses.
  • Topical antiseptics.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotic resistance common; susceptibility testing helpful.

Vaccination

  • None commercially available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMedandVetMedResource.
  • Akridge H Det al (2013)Evaluation of the affinity of various species and strains of Staphylococcus to adhere to equine corneocytes.Vet Derm24(5), 525-e124PubMed.
  • Couto Net al (2013)Biocide and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates from horses.Vet Microbiol166(1-2), 299-303PubMed.
  • Maddox T Wet al (2012)Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 1: Prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus.Equine Vet J44(3), 289-296PubMed.
  • Maddox T Wet al (2012)Cross-sectional study of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in horses. Part 2: Risk factors for faecal carriage of antimicrobial-resistantEscherichia coliin horses.Equine Vet J44(3), 297-303PubMed.
  • Greenberg S M et al (2011)Unilateral orbital lacrimal gland abscess in a horse.Vet Ophthal14(1), 55-60PubMed.
  • Adams M Ket al(2010)The bacteria isolated from the skin of 20 horses at a veterinary yeaching hospital.J Equine Vet Sci30(12), 687-695PubMed.
  • Hesselbarth J & Schwarz S (1995)Comparative ribotyping of Staphylococcus intermedius from dogs, pigeons, horses and mink.Vet Microbiol45(1), 11-17PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dr Susan Dawson, Department of Veterinary Clinical Science and Animal Husbandry, Crown Street, Liverpool, Merseyside L7 7EX, UK.
  • Biberstein E L (1990)Staphylococci.In:Review of Veterinary Microbiology.Eds E L Biberstein and Y C Lee. Boston: Blackwell Scientific. pp 150-156. ISBN 0 86542 085 8.

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