Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Rhinovirus

Contributor(s): Susan Dawson, Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family:Picornaviridae.
  • Genus:Rhinovirus.

Etymology

  • Gk:rhin, rhis- nose.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Equine respiratory tract and pharyngeal epithelium.
  • Environmental contamination.
  • May also survive in the respiratory tract of other animals, eg primates, guinea pigs or rabbits.

Transmission

  • Direct contact, aerosol and contaminated fomites.

Pathological effects

  • In the UK 80% of horses have antibodies to equine rhinovirus type 1 and 20% to type 2.
  • Maternally derived antibody levels wane by 3-6 months of age.
  • Neutralizing antibodies develop about 7 days after infection.
  • Infection results in long-lasting immunity, but some immune horses may still carry the virus.
  • Some infections results in mild upper respiratory tract signs in which a copious serous nasal discharge predominates. However, cases of acute severe febrile respiratory disease have been reported   Rhinovirus infection  .
  • Other clinical signs may include anorexia, mild pyrexia, pharyngitis or lymphadenitis.
  • Rhinovirus type 2 may produce more severe disease than type 1.
  • Disease may be complicated by stress or secondary bacterial infection.

Other Host Effects

  • Many infections are subclinical.
  • Virus may be carried in pharyngeal tissues for up to 1 month.

Control

Control via animal

  • Planned infection of Thoroughbred foals   Thoroughbred  has been suggested, so that late natural infection does not interfere with training.

Vaccination

  • None available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Li F, Drummer H E, Ficorilli N, Studdert M J & Crabb B S (1997) Identification of noncytopathogenic equine rhinovirus 1 as a cause of acute febrile respiratory disease in horses. J Clin Microbiol 35 (4), 937-943 PubMed.

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