Equis ISSN 2398-2977

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Contributor(s): Sarah Binns, Susan Dawson, Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Genus:Klebsiella.
  • Species:pneumoniae.

Etymology

  • Klebsiella: named after T.A.E. Klebs (1834-1913) - German bacteriologist.
  • Pneumoniae: Gk:pneuma- wind, breath.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Widespread in environment.
  • Colonizes mucous membranes, especially of gastrointestinal and genital tracts. May be cultured from semen.

Transmission

  • Direct or indirect contact.
  • Many infections endogenous.
  • Venereal transmission may occur .

Pathological effects

  • Opportunistic infections develop at immunocompromised sites.
  • K. pneumoniais a common cause of nosocomial infections.
  • Has been associated with pneumonia, placentitis, metritis   Uterus: endometritis - bacterial  , peritonitis   Abdomen: peritonitis  and cholangiohepatitis in horses.
  • Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) consists of polysaccharide antigens and Lipid A, the toxic moiety   →   internalised by host cells   →   stimulates secretion of inflammatory mediators   →   endotoxemia.
  • Some strains produce exotoxins.

Other Host Effects

  • May colonize mucous membranes of healthy individuals, particularly in gastrointestinal and genital tracts.

Control

Control via animal

  • Hygiene, especially during mating.
  • Uterine swabs and semen samples to detect infected animals.

Control via chemotherapies

  • Antibiotic susceptibility testing should be carried out; transferable resistance (carried byR. plasmids) is common, eg to gentamicin   Gentamicin  .
  • Uniformly resistant to ampicillin   Penicillin G  .

Control via environment

  • Hygiene, especially removal of soiled bedding.
  • Susceptible to common disinfectants.

Vaccination

  • None available.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references fromPubMed.
  • Hong C B, Donahue J M, Giles R Cet al(1993)Etiology and pathology of equine placentitis.J Vet Diagn Invest5(1), 56-63PubMed.
  • Ensink J M, Vanklingeren B, Houwers D Jet al(1993)In vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs of bacterial isolates from horses in the Netherlands.Equine Vet J25(4), 309-313PubMed.

Other sources of information


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