Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Teeth: tumor

Synonym(s): Odontogenic tumor, Ameloblastoma, Canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma, odontoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumor

Contributor(s): Rachel Perry

Introduction

  • Odontogenic tumors arise from remnants of embryonic tissues destined to develop teeth, the odontogenic epithelium or odontogenic mesenchyme or a combination. The growths may mimic certain stages of tooth development histologically, containing enamel, dentin or cementum or dental pulp-like tissue.
  • Cause: neoplastic transformation of tissues of dental origin.
  • Signs: expanding oral mass, halitosis, malocclusion, tooth displacement, may be asymptomatic as slow growth.
  • Clinical behavior: hamartoma-like proliferation to benign but invasive neoplasms. Malignant odontogenic tumors are extremely rare but have been reported in the dog.
  • Diagnosis: histopathology, radiology.
  • Treatment: wide surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: good with adequate excision.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Odontogenic tumors arise from remnants of embryonic tissuse destined to develop teeth: odontogenic epithelium or odontogenic mesenchyme or a combination.
  • Rare - representing <3% of oral masses.
  • Originally classified according to cell type and presence of "reciprocal inductive properties":
    • During normal tooth development a reciprocal inductive process occurs between odontogenic epithelium and adjacent mesenchyme.
    • Internal enamel epithelium induces adjacent mesenchymal cells of dental papilla to differentiate into odontoblasts.
    • Odontoblasts form dentin.
    • Dentin induces the internal enamel epithelium to differentiate into ameloblasts and produce enamel.
  • This system, though, is incomplete and confusing because not all odontogenic tumors have inductive properties.
  • Now defined on basis of tissue of origin.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fiani N, Verstraete F J, Kass P H, Cox D P (2011) Clinicopathologic characterization of odontogenic tumors and focal fibrous hyperplasia in dogs: 152 cases (1995-2005). JAVMA 238 (4), 495-500 PubMed.
  • Gardner D G, Dubielzig R R, McGee E V (1994) The so-called calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour in dogs and cats (Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumour). J Comp Pathol 111 (3), 221-230 PubMed.
  • Thrall D E, Goldschmidt M H, Biery D N (1981) Malignant tumor formation at the site of previously irradiated acanthomatous epulides in four dogs. JAVMA 178 (2), 127-132 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Verstraete F J M, Lommer M J (2012)Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Dogs and Cats.Edinburgh: Saunders Elsevier.


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