Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Skin: pemphigus foliaceus

Contributor(s): Prof Douglass Macintire, Richard Squires

Introduction

  • Uncommon autoimmune skin disease characterized by subcorneal pustules.
  • Most common type of pemphigus and most common autoimmune skin disease overall.
  • Cause: varied and incompletely understood; thought to be an autoimmune skin disease resulting from autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 (intracellular substance), causing acantholysis of keratinocytes; drug-induced disease rarely involved.
  • Signs: skin pustules, crusting lesions, maybe secondary bacterial folliculitis.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, histopathology, cytology.
  • Treatment: immunosuppressive chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis: good, may need lifelong treatment.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Spontaneous development (Chow Chow, Japanese Akita).
  • Drug-induced (Labrador Retriever, Dobermann): history of chronic pruritic or allergic skin disease with sudden worsening of signs.
  • Has been associated with carprofen administration in 2 cases.

Pathophysiology

  • See also Pemphigus vulgaris Skin: pemphigus vulgaris.
  • Pemphigus antibody is likely to be slightly different between different types of pemphigus.

Timecourse

  • Progresses from focal to multifocal/generalised within 6 months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jackson H (1999) Common cutaneous diseases of the canine foot. In Practice 21 (2), 54-61 VetMedResource.
  • Shinya K, Nomura K, Wada S, Morioka H & Umermura T (1996) Pemphigus foliaceus with typical histological and immunohistological findings in a dog. J Vet Med Sci 58 (8), 815-817 PubMed.
  • Carlotti D (1989) Proceedings of 1987 symposium on skin disease at Lanwade Hall, Newmarket. JSAP 30, 223-227.
  • Carlotti D (1989) Autoimmune mediated skin disease. JSAP 30 (4), 223-227 VetMedResource.
  • Johnson B W & Campbell K L (1989) Dermatoses of the canine eyelid. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 11 (4), 385-394 VetMedResource.
  • Noxon J O & Myers R K (1989) Pemphigus foliaceus in 2 Shetland sheepdog litter mates. JAVMA 194 (4), 545-546 PubMed.
  • Beale K M (1988) Azathioprine for treatment of immune-mediated diseases of dogs and cats. JAVMA 192 (9), 1316-1318 PubMed.


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