Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Chlamydia psittaci

Synonym(s): C. psittaci

Contributor(s): Melissa Kennedy

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Order: Chlamydiales.
  • Family: Chlamydiaceae.
  • Genus: Chlamydia.

Etymology

  • Gk: chlamys - a cloak.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Transmission

  • Inhalation or ingestion of infectious material, eg respiratory discharges and feces.
  • Vertical transmission via the egg occurs in some birds.

Pathological effects

  • Presenting condition and severity of disease related to immunological state of the host animal.
  • Often partial immune response → chronic relapsing infection.
  • Pathogenicity related to age, sex and health of host animal; route of infection; infective dose; strain and virulence of organism.
  • In birds: causes pneumonia, pericarditis, diarrhea, encephalitis, conjunctivitis.
  • In mammals: causes enzootic abortion of ewes, abortion of cows, genital infections, mastitis, intestinal infection and diarrhea, pneumonia, arthritis, encephalitis, conjunctivitis, hepatitis.
  • In humans: causes pneumonia, psittacosis/ornithosis, abortion, conjunctivitis.
  • Cats: respiratory disease; mainly persistent conjunctivitis.

Other Host Effects

  • The gastrointestinal tract is the natural habitat in both mammals and birds.
  • Inapparent infections may occur with prolonged fecal shedding.
  • Psittacosis (infection due to C. psittaci in psittacine birds) and ornithosis (infection due to C. psittaci in non-psittacine birds) may result in a carrier state after recovery, and stress may cause recurrence.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Control via environment

  • Zoonotic risk; pregnant women should avoid contact with lambing sheep.

Vaccination

  • Killed and live attenuated vaccines available for cats.
  • Live attenuated vaccines for sheep.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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