ISSN 2398-2993      

Nitroxynil

obovis
Contributor(s):

Rob Kelly

Andrew Forbes

Royal Dick School Veterinary Studies logo

Synonym(s): Nitroxinil


Introduction

Name

  • Nitroxynil.

Class of drug

  • Halogenated phenol.

Description

Chemical name

  • 4-Hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrobenzonitrile.

Molecular formula

  • C7H3IN2O3.

Molecular weight

  • 290.01.

Physical properties

  • Fluid formulation usually a clear orange-red color.
  • Powder formulations, which are not licensed for use in animals, are available usually white in color with a melting point of ~137oC/278.6oF

Storage requirements

Uses

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Indications

  • Predominantly for treatment and control of Fasciola spp Fasciola hepatica: parasite Fasciola gigantica: parasite infections from 8 weeks of age (juvenile to adult stages) in cattle and is also licensed for this use in sheep.
  • Also effective for the treatment larvae and adult nematode infections of Haemonchus contortus Haemonchus spp, Haemonchus place, Oesophagostomum radiatum Oesophagostomum and Bunostomum phlebotomum Bunostomum spp in cattle. Efficacy is variable against nematode species, thus Nitroxynil should not be considered a broad-spectrum anthelmintic in most UK settings as Ostertagia ostertagi Ostertagia ostertagi and Cooperia Cooperia spp species predominate, however, in sub-tropical regions where haemonchosis is prevalent, it can be a useful adjunct to control.

Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • None reported.

With diagnostic tests

  • None reported.

Withdrawal Period

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fairweather I, Brennan G P, Hanna R E B, Robinson M W & Skuce P J (2020) Drug resistance in liver flukes. Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 12, 39-59 PubMed.
  • Howell A K & Williams D J L (2020) The epidemiology and control of liver flukes in cattle and sheep. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 36 (1), 109-123 PubMed.
  • Nzalawahe J, Hannah R, Kassuku A A, Stothard J R, Coles G & Eisler M C (2018) Evaluating the effectiveness of trematocides against Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes infections in cattle, using faecal egg count reduction tests in Iringa Rural and Arumeru Districts, Tanzania. Parasit Vectors 11 (1), 384 PubMed.
  • Hutchinson G W, Dawson K, Fitzgibbon C C & Martin P J (2009) Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil + clorsulon + ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle. Vet Parasitol 162 (3-4), 278-284 PubMed.
  • Mitchell G (2002) Update on fasciolosis in cattle and sheep. In Pract 24 (7), 378-385 VetMedResource
  • Coles G C & Stafford K A (2001) Activity of oxyclozanide, nitroxynil, clorsulon and albendazole against adult triclabendazole-resistant Fasciola hepatica. Vet Rec 148 (23), 723-724 VetMedResource
  • Fairweather I & Boray J C (1999) Fasciolicides: efficacy, actions, resistance and its management. Vet J 158 (2), 81-112 PubMed. doi:10.1053/tvjl.1999.0377.
  • Martin R J (1997) Modes of action of anthelmintic drugs. Vet J 154 (1), 11-34.
  • Rapic D, Dzakula N, Sakar D & Richards R (1988) Comparative efficacy of triclabendazole, nitroxynil and rafoxanide against immature and mature Fasciola hepatica in naturally infected cattle. Vet Rec 122 (3), 59-62 PubMed

Other sources of information

  • Deplazes P, Eckert J, Mathias A, von Samson-Himmelstjerna & Zahner H (2016) Helminths and Principles of Therapy and Control. In: Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine. Wageningen Academic Publishers. pp 175-186, 191-197, 224-254, 287-302, 303-312, 556-572.
  • Taylor M A, Coop R L & Wall R L (2007) Veterinary Helminthology from Cattle, Sheep and Resistance Sections. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd edn. Blackwell Science. pp 51-91, 152-212, 770-775.
  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of licensed veterinary medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk/home.
  • Veterinary Substances Database. Website: http://sitem.herts.ac.uk. Accessed October 23, 2020.

Organisation(s)

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