ISSN 2398-2993      

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome

obovis
Contributor(s):

Mike Reynolds

Andrew Forbes

Synonym(s): SFTS, Bunyavirus zoonosis


Introduction

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome is NOT a disease of cattle. It is a human disease, but is included within Bovis as cattle, although unaffected themselves, play a role in this significant human disease and as such those working with cattle should be aware of this condition.

  • Cause: severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne hemorrhagic viral disease of humans. It is believed to be caused by a tick borne Phlebovirus of the family Bunyviridae, transmitted by the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, and it can be fatal to affected people. Cattle, and other domestic and wild animals, are believed to be amplification vectors for this disease, although they do not suffer the disease themselves. Research into this emerging condition and the role of cattle in the transmission of this disease is ongoing.
  • Signs: SFTS is an asymptomatic disease in livestock.
  • Diagnosis: RT-PCR, IgG ELISA and virus isolation have demonstrated circulating virus in domestic livestock species during epidemiological investigations in regions where human cases of SFTS have occurred.
  • Treatment: none, no clinical signs have been reported in livestock.
  • Prognosis: good, no clinical signs have been reported in livestock.
Warning: SFTS is a zoonotic disease and may be fatal to affected humans.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • SFTSV, a tick borne Phlebovirus of the family Bunyviridae Ticks: overview.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Most human cases of disease occur in rural, undeveloped or mountainous regions from March to November, coinciding with periods of tick activity, with peak disease incidence during June and July.

Specific

  • Most human cases of disease have been reported in farmers or agricultural workers working in close association with domestic livestock species.
  • The presence of tick vector species, especially H. longicornis Asian longhorned tick in the environment.

Pathophysiology

  • The pathogenesis of SFTSV in animals is yet to be clarified with as yet, no known clinical signs in livestock species.
  • Experimental studies in cell culture show thrombocytopenia occurs secondary to the removal of virus bound platelets by splenic macrophages, which may account for the disease syndrome in humans.

Diagnosis

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Yanase T, Murota K & Hayama Y (2020) Endemic and emerging arboviruses in domestic ruminants in East Asia. Front Vet Sci 7, 168 PubMed.
  • Crump A & Tanimoto T (2020) Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: Japan under threat from life-threatening emerging tick-borne disease. JMA 3 (4), 295-302 PubMed.
  • Chena C, Lib P, Lib K F, Wangb H L, Daib Y X, Chenga X & Yana J B (2019) Animals as amplification hosts in the spread of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis 79, 77–84 PubMed.
  • Robles N J C, Han H J, Park S J & Choi Y K (2018) Epidemiology of severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome virus infection and the need for therapeutics for the prevention. Clin Exp Vaccine Res 7 (1), 43-50 PubMed.
  • Lee H, Kim E J, Song J Y et al (2016) Development and evaluation of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody for diagnosis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in bovine sera. J Vet Sci 17 (3), 307-314 PubMed.
  • Wilson W C, Gaudreault N N, Hossain M M & McVey D S (2015) Lesser-known bunyavirus infections. Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz 34 (2), 419-429 PubMed.

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